Founding Fathers Films

2009-09-28 16:11:38 UTC

What is Ultimately Possible in Physics? Physics! A Hero’s Journey

with Galileo, Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, Planck, Einstein, Schrodinger,

Bohr, and the Greats towards Moving Dimensions Theory. E pur si

muove!

by Dr. Elliot McGucken

ABSTRACT:

Over the past few decades prominent physicists have noted that physics

has diverged away from its heroic journey defined by boldly

describing, fathoming, and characterizing foundational truths of

physical reality via simple, elegant, logically-consistent postulates

and equations humbling themselves before empirical reality. Herein

the spirit of physics is again exalted by the heroic words of the

Greats—by Galileo, Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, Planck, Einstein, Bohr,

and Schrodinger—the Founding Fathers upon whose shoulders physics

stands. And from that pinnacle, a novel physical theory is proposed,

complete with a novel physical model celebrating a hitherto unsung

universal invariant and an equation reflecting the foundational

physical reality of a fourth dimension expanding relative to the three

spatial dimensions at the rate of c, or dx4/dt=ic, providing both the

“elementary foundations” for relativity and QM’s “characteristic

trait”—entanglement, and its nonlocal, probabilistic nature. From

MDT’s experimentally-verified equation relativity is derived while

time is unfrozen and free will exalted, while a physical model

accounting for quantum nonlocality is presented. Entropy, Huygens’

Principle; the wave/particle, energy/mass, space/time, and E/B

dualities; and time and all its arrows and asymmetries emerge from a

common, foundational physical model. MDT exalts Einstein’s “empirical

facts,” “naturalness,” and “logical simplicity.” For the first time

in the history of relativity, change is woven into the fabric of space-

time, and the timeless, ageless, nonlocal photon of Galileo’s/

Einstein’s “empirical world” is explained via a foundational physical

model, alongside the fact that c is both constant and the maximum

velocity in the universe. The empirical GPS clocks’ time dilation/

twins paradox is resolved by proposing a frame of absolute rest—the

three spatial dimensions, and a frame of absolute motion—the fourth

expanding dimension upon which ageless photons of zero rest mass surf;

which underlie and give rise to Einstein’s Principle of Relativity.

When the solution is simple, God is answering. –Einstein

If, relative to K, K' is a uniformly moving co-ordinate system devoid

of rotation, then natural phenomena run their course with respect to

K' according to exactly the same general laws as with respect to K.

This statement is called the principle of relativity. –Einstein, 1954

No great discovery was ever made without a bold guess. –Newton

For an idea that does not at first seem insane, there is no hope. -

Einstein

If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the

shoulders of giants. –Newton

In questions of science, the authority of thousands is not worth the

humble reasoning of one individual. –Galileo

Books on physics are full of complicated mathematical formulae. But

thought and ideas (the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the

three spatial dimensions at c), not formulae, are the beginning of

every physical theory. —Einstein/Infeld, The Evolution of Physics

But before mankind could be ripe for a science which takes in the

whole of reality, a second fundamental truth was needed, which only

became common property among philosophers with the advent of Kepler

and Galileo. Pure logical thinking cannot yield us any knowledge of

the empirical world; all knowledge of reality starts from experience

and ends in it. Propositions arrived at by purely logical means are

completely empty as regards reality. Because Galileo saw this, and

particularly because he drummed it into the scientific world, he is

the father of modern physics—indeed, of modern science altogether. -

Einstein , Ideas and Opinions

Epur si muove – (And yet it does move.) –Galileo

.. my dear Kepler, what do you think of the foremost philosophers of

this University? In spite of my oft-repeated efforts and invitations,

they have refused, with the obstinacy of a glutted adder, to look at

the planets or Moon or my telescope. –Galileo

A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents

and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents

eventually die, and a new generation grows up with it. -Planck

…my observations have convinced me that some men, reasoning

preposterously, first establish some conclusion in their minds which,

either because of its being their own or because of their having

received it from some person who has their entire confidence,

impresses them so deeply that one finds it impossible ever to get it

out of their heads. Such arguments in support of their fixed idea ...

gain their instant acceptance … whatever is brought forward against

it, however ingenious and conclusive, they receive with disdain or

with hot rage … Beside themselves with passion, some of them would not

be backward even about scheming to suppress and silence their

adversaries.... No good can come of dealing with such people . . .

their company may be not only unpleasant but dangerous. –Galileo

Millions saw the apple fall, but Newton was the one who asked why. –

Baruch

What is Possible in Physics? Physics! Moving Dimensions Theory

We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both

true and sufficient to explain their appearances. –Newton

Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. –

Einstein

A physical theory can be satisfactory only if its structures are

composed of elementary foundations. The theory of relativity is

ultimately as little satisfactory as, for example, classical

thermodynamics was before Boltzmann had interpreted the entropy as

probability. –Einstein

When two systems, of which we know the states by their respective

representatives, enter into temporary physical interaction due to

known forces between them, and when after a time of mutual influence

the systems separate again, then they can no longer be described in

the same way as before, viz. by endowing each of them with a

representative of its own. I would not call that one but rather the

characteristic trait of quantum mechanics, the one that enforces its

entire departure from classical lines of thought. By the interaction

the two representatives [the quantum states] have become entangled. -

Schrodinger

MDT provides both the “elementary foundations” of relativity that

Einstein yet sought, and the foundational physical reality underlying

and causing quantum nonlocality and entanglement, which Schrodinger

labeled the “characteristic trait” of QM. Einstein's Principle of

Relativity, as well as his two postulates, derive from MDT's simple

physical model (Fig. 1) and single postulate which is more concise and

has the added benefits of providing for free will, liberating us from

the block universe, weaving change into the fundamental fabric of

space-time for the first time in the history of relativity, and

providing an elementary, foundational physical model for time and all

its arrows and asymmetries, entropy, and QM’s nonlocality and

entanglement, as well as reality's probabilistic nature. The fourth

dimension is inherently nonlocal via its invariant expansion, which is

the source of nonlocality as well as relativity. All of this is more

fully developed in Dr. E’s 2008 paper on MDT which examines Einstein’s

1912 Manuscript on Relativity and derives relativity from MDT’s dx4/

dt=ic: Time as an Emergent Phenomenon: Traveling Back to the Heroic

Age of Physics: fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/238 & fqxi.org/

community/forum/topic/432.

Simple, logical proofs of MDT:

MDT PROOF#1: Relativity tells us that a timeless, ageless photon

remains in one place in the fourth dimension. Quantum mechanics tells

us that a photon propagates as a spherically-symmetric expanding

wavefront at the velocity of c. Ergo, the fourth dimension must be

expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c,

in a spherically-symmetric manner. The expansion of the fourth

dimension is the source of nonlocality, entanglement, time and all its

arrows and asymmetries, c, relativity, entropy, free will, and all

motion, change, and measurement, for no measurement can be made

without change. For the first time in the history of relativity,

change has been wedded to the fundamental fabric of spacetime in MDT.

MDT PROOF#2: Einstein (1912 Man. on Rel.) and Minkowski wrote

x4=ict. Ergo dx4/dt=ic.

MDT PROOF#3: The only way to stay stationary in the three spatial

dimensions is to move at c through the fourth dimension. The only way

to stay stationary in the fourth dimension is to move at c through the

three spatial dimensions. Ergo the fourth dimension is moving at c

relative to the three spatial dimensions.

MDT twitter proof (limited to 140 characters): SR: photon is

stationary in 4th dimension. QM: photon is probability wave expanding

@ c. Ergo: 4th dimension expands @ c & MDT: dx4/dt=ic –from

http://twitter.com/45surf

A people that were to honor falsehood, defamation, fraud, and murder

would be unable, indeed, to subsist for very long. –Einstein

MDT Sides With the Simplicity of the Heroic Greats in Word, Equation,

and Deed

MDT presents a new universal invariant reflecting a foundational

physical reality of a fourth expanding dimension—an elementary law

from which Einstein's Principle of Relativity can be built by pure

deduction. Begin with a universe with four dimensions x1, x2, x3, x4

where the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial

dimensions at the rate of c, dx4/dt=ic, and all of relativity is shown

to naturally emerge in Dr. E’s above paper, as does quantum mechanics'

nonlocality and entanglement, wave-particle duality, space-time

duality, mass-energy duality, entropy, and time and all its arrows and

asymmetries.

Behind it all is surely an idea so simple, so beautiful, that when we

grasp it - in a decade, a century, or a millennium—we will all say to

each other, how could it have been otherwise? How could we have been

so stupid? –Wheeler

Three Rules of Work: Out of clutter find simplicity; From discord find

harmony; In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity. –Einstein

MDT presents a physical principle more fundamental than Einstein's

Principle of Relativity, as all of relativity naturally emerges from

MDT's postulate, along with time and all its arrows. And too, MDT,

via the natural smearing of locality into nonlocality heralded via the

expansion of the fourth dimension, provides a physical model for

quantum entanglement—that which Schrodinger stated was the

“characteristic trait” of quantum mechanics. So it is that MDT

provides a common, foundational physical model for quantum mechanics

and relativity, thusly unifying them on a physical level. A simple

postulate and equation dx4/dt=ic bestows upon us a myriad of profound

consequences across all realms of physics—granting us both the

“elementary foundations” for relativity that Einstein yet sought,

while also providing the elementary foundations for Schrodinger’s

“characteristic trait” of QM—entanglement. MDT rides with the

simplicity of the heroic Greats in word, equation, and deed:

Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more

violent. It takes a touch of genius—and a lot of courage—to move in

the opposite direction. –Einstein

Mathematicians may flatter themselves that they possess new ideas

which mere human language is as yet unable to express. Let them make

the effort to express these ideas in appropriate words without the aid

of symbols, and if they succeed they will not only lay us laymen under

a lasting obligation, but, we venture to say, they will find

themselves very much enlightened during the process, and will even be

doubtful whether the ideas as expressed in symbols had ever quite

found their way out of the equations into their minds. –Maxwell

I don't believe in mathematics. –Einstein

Do not worry about your difficulties in mathematics, I assure you that

mine are greater. –Einstein

Geometry is not true, it is advantageous. –Poincare

In Einstein's Mistakes, Dr. Hans Ohanian reports on how physics

advances via the emphasis not on math, but on physical reality, “(Max)

Born described the weak point in Einstein's work in those final years:

“. . . now he tried to do without any empirical facts, by pure

thinking. He believed in the power of reason to guess the laws

according to which God built the world.”” MDT exalts nature and the

physical reality of a timeless, ageless photon, providing a simple,

unifying physical model for entropy, statistical mechanics,

relativity, and quantum mechanics.

A good decision is based on knowledge and not on numbers. –Plato

Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can

be counted counts. –Einstein

Mathematics are well and good but nature keeps dragging us around by

the nose. –Einstein

In Disturbing the Universe, Freeman Dyson writes, “Dick [Feynman]

fought back against my skepticism, arguing that Einstein had failed

because he stopped thinking in concrete physical images and became a

manipulator of equations. I had to admit that was true. The great

discoveries of Einstein's earlier years were all based on direct

physical intuition. Einstein's later unified theories failed because

they were only sets of equations without physical meaning. Dick's sum-

over-histories theory was in the spirit of the young Einstein, not of

the old Einstein. It was solidly rooted in physical reality.” In The

Trouble With Physics, Lee Smolin writes that Bohr was not a Feynman

“shut up and calculate” physicist, and from the above Dyson quote, it

appears that Feynman wasn't either. Lee writes, “Mara Beller, a

historian who has studied his [Bohr's] work in detail, points out that

there was not a single calculation in his research notebooks, which

were all verbal arguments and pictures.” Please see MDT’s Fig. 1 at

the end of this document. (Many more to come!)

In Dark Matters, Dr. Percy Seymour writes, “Albert Einstein was a

great admirer of Newton, Faraday, and Maxwell. In his office he had

framed copies of portraits of these scientists. He had this to say

about Faraday and Maxwell: “The greatest change in the axiomatic basis

of physics—in other words, of our conception of the structure—since

Newton laid the foundation of theoretical physics was brought about by

Faraday's and Maxwell's work on electromagnetic phenomena.”

In his book Einstein, Banesh Hoffman (and Faraday) exalts physical

reality over mere math:

Meanwhile, however, the English experimenter Michael Farady was making

outstanding experimental discoveries in electricity and magnetism.

Being largely self-taught and lacking mathematical facility, he could

not interpret his results in the manner of Ampere. And this was

fortunate, since it led to a revolution in science. . . most

physicists adept at mathematics thought his concepts mathematically

naïve.

MDT Asks: Why Relativity, Entanglement, Entropy, Nonlocality, and

Time?

The important thing is not to stop questioning. –Einstein

It is interesting that Einstein introduced relativity as a principle—

as a primary law not deduced from anything else. Millions have seen

Einstein’s relativity born out via experiment, but it was I who asked,

“why relativity?” What physical model—what deeper physical reality

underlies relativity? And I found the answer in a more fundamental

invariance—the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three

spatial dimensions, or dx4/dt = ic. Change is fundamentally embedded

in space-time. And not only can all of relativity be derived from

this, but suddenly we have a physical model for entropy, time and its

arrows and asymmetries in all realms, free will, and quantum

nonlocality and entanglement. MDT accounts for the constant speed of

light c—both its independence of the source and its independence of

the velocity of the observer, while establishing it as the fastest,

slowest, and *only* velocity for all entities and objects moving

through space-time, as well as the maximum velocity that anything is

measured to move. And suddenly we see a physical basis for E=mc2.

Energy and mass are the same thing—it's just that energy is mass

caught upon the fourth expanding dimension, and thus it surfs along at

c.

In Einstein's Mistakes, Ohanian writes, “Einstein acknowledged his

debt to Newton and to Maxwell, but he was not fully aware of the

extent of Galileo's fatherhood. In an introduction he wrote for

Galileo's celebrated Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems,

he faults Galileo for failing to produce a general mathematical

proof. Galileo regarded relativity as an empirical, observational

fact, that is, a law of nature, and Einstein's own formulation of the

Principle of Relativity three hundred years later imitated Galileo's

in treating this principle as a law of nature and not as a

mathematical deduction from anything else.”

Einstein’s Principle of Relativity Derived from MDT: MDT’s Diverse

Successes

Well, MDT provides a more fundamental law with an equation: dx4/dt =

ic, from which relativity is derived in Dr. E’s above paper. An added

benefit are all the other entities dx4/dt=ic accounts for with a

physical model, ranging from entropy, to QM's entanglement and

nonlocality, to time and all its arrows. MDT accomplishes a diverse

array of physical feats:

provides the “elementary foundations” for Einstein’s relativity and

Schrodinger’s “characteristic trait” of QM—entanglement.

unfreezes time & liberates us from the block universe, allowing for

and exalting free will

weaves change into the fundamental fabric of space-time for the first

time in the history of relativity

derives relativity from a more fundamental universal invariant: dx4/

dt=ic

provides a physical model for entropy

provides a physical model for quantum entanglement (QM’s

characteristic trait)

provides a physical mechanism for nonlocality—the fourth expanding

dimension distributes locality

provides a physical model unifying the dualities—space/time, energy/

mass, wave/particle, E/B

provides a physical model for the invariance of c—both its

independence of the source and its independence of the observer

provides a physical model for the spherically-symmetric expanding

wave-front of probability that defines a photon's path

offers a resolution for both the EPR Paradox and Godel's problems

with the block universe relativity implied

offers a physical model for why nothing can move faster than c.

offers an intuitive model for the length-contraction can accompanies

all motion

accounts for both the agelessness (from relativity—nonlocality in

time) and the nonlocality (from QM) of the photon

accounts for the gravitational slowing of time and light, as well as

the gravitational redshift

provides a unique physical model underlying wide-ranging phenomena in

quantum mechanics, relativity, and statistical mechanics.

*provides a physical model for time and all its arrows and asymmetries

MDT & Nobel Laureate Physicists vs. String Theory/LQG

MDT was inspired in part by Einstein's words pertaining to the higher

purpose of physical theories:

Before I enter upon a critique of mechanics as a foundation of

physics, something of a broadly general nature will first have to be

said concerning the points of view according to which it is possible

to criticize physical theories at all. The first point of view is

obvious: The theory must not contradict empirical facts. . . The

second point of view is not concerned with the relation to the

material of observation but with the premises of the theory itself,

with what may briefly but vaguely be characterized as the

“naturalness” or “logical simplicity” of the premises (of the basic

concepts and of the relations between these which are taken as a

basis). This point of view, an exact formulation of which meets with

great difficulties, has played an important role in the selection and

evaluation of theories since time immemorial. –Einstein

Contrast MDT’s elegant, unifying successes with String Theory's “not

even wrongishness.” The first page of String Theory in a Nutshell

states in a footnoted sentence:

String Theory has been the leading candidate … for a theory that

consistently unifies all the fundamental forces of nature, including

gravity. It gained popularity because it provides a theory that is UV

finite.(1) . . . The footnote (1) reads: “Although there is no

rigorous proof to all orders that the theory is UV finite...” –STRING

THEORY IN A NUTSHELL

So you see, string theory is not a finite theory, but this is

generally kept to the footnotes, when mentioned at all. Many Nobel

Laureate physicists harbor reservations regarding strings:

We don’t know what we are talking about . --Nobel Laureate David Gross

on string theory

It is anomalous to replace the four-dimensional continuum by a five-

dimensional one and then subsequently to tie up artificially one of

those five dimensions in order to account for the fact that it does

not manifest itself. -Einstein to Ehrenfest (Imagine doing this for

10-30+ dimensions!)

String theorists don't make predictions, they make excuses . –

Feynman, Nobel Laureate

String theory is like a 50 year old woman wearing too much lipstick. -

Robert Laughlin, Nobel Laureate

Actually, I would not even be prepared to call string theory a

“theory” rather a “model” or not even that: just a hunch. After all, a

theory should come together with instructions on how to deal with it

to identify the things one wishes to describe, in our case the

elementary particles, and one should, at least in principle, be able

to formulate the rules for calculating the properties of these

particles, and how to make new predictions for them. Imagine that I

give you a chair, while explaining that the legs are still missing,

and that the seat, back and armrest will perhaps be delivered soon;

whatever I did give you, can I still call it a chair? –‘t Hooft,

Nobel Laureate

It is tragic, but now, we have the string theorists, thousands of

them, that also dream of explaining all the features of nature. They

just celebrated the 20th anniversary of superstring theory. So when

one person spends 30 years, it's a waste, but when thousands waste 20

years in modern day, they celebrate with champagne. I find that

curious. -Glashow, Nobel Laureate

I don't like that they're not calculating anything. I don't like that

they don't check their ideas. I don't like that for anything that

disagrees with an experiment, they cook up an explanation-a fix-up to

say, “Well, it might be true.” For example, the theory requires ten

dimensions. Well, maybe there's a way of wrapping up six of the

dimensions. Yes, that's all possible mathematically, but why not

seven? . . . So the fact that it might disagree with experience is

very tenuous, it doesn't produce anything; it has to be excused most

of the time. It doesn't look right. -Feynman

But superstring physicists have not yet shown that theory really

works. They cannot demonstrate that the standard theory is a logical

outcome of string theory. They cannot even be sure that their

formalism includes a description of such things as protons and

electrons. And they have not yet made even one teeny-tiny experimental

prediction. Worst of all, superstring theory does not follow as a

logical consequence of some appealing set of hypotheses about nature.

—Glashow

The great irony of string theory, however, is that the theory itself

is not unified. . . For a theory that makes the claim of providing a

unifying framework for all physical laws, it is the supreme irony that

the theory itself appears so disunited!! Introduction to

Superstrings & M-Theory –Kaku

If Einstein were alive today, he would be horrified at this state of

affairs. He would upbraid the profession for allowing this mess to

develop and fly into a blind rage over the transformation of his

beautiful creations into ideologies and the resulting proliferation of

logical inconsistencies. Einstein was an artist and a scholar but

above all he was a revolutionary. His approach to physics might be

summarized as hypothesizing minimally. Never arguing with experiment,

demanding total logical consistency, and mistrusting unsubstantiated

beliefs. The unsubstantial belief of his day was ether, or more

precisely the naïve version of ether that preceded relativity. The

unsubstantiated belief of our day is relativity itself. It would be

perfectly in character for him to reexamine the facts, toss them over

in his mind, and conclude that his beloved principle of relativity was

not fundamental at all but emergent (emergent from MDT!) . . . It

would mean that the fabric of space-time was not simply the stage on

which life played out but an organizational phenomenon, and that there

might be something beyond. (MDT!) -A Different Universe, Laughlin,

Nobel Laureate

[String Theory] has no practical utility, however, other than to

sustain the myth of the ultimate theory. There is no experimental

evidence for the existence of strings in nature, nor does the special

mathematics of string theory enable known experimental behavior to be

calculated or predicted more easily. . . String theory is, in fact, a

textbook case of Deceitful Turkey, a beautiful set of ideas that will

always remain just barely out of reach. Far from a wonderful

technological hope for a greater tomorrow, it is instead the tragic

consequence of an obsolete belief system-in which emergence plays no

role and dark law does not exist. —A Different Universe, Laughlin

MDT and Socrates’ & Feynman’s Honorable Pursuit of Truth

MDT delivers an ultimate theory underlying Huygens’ Principle which

Feynman’s many-paths formulation of QM also exalts, whereas Loop

Quantum Gravity and String Theory only sustain a myth of an ultimate

theory. Nobel Laureates have referred to this present era as the

dark ages of physics, where progress in physics is frozen in a block

universe tied together with tiny, vibrating strings and little loops

which nobody has ever physically seen, violating the fundamental maxim

of science put forth by Galileo, Einstein, et. al. Feynman echoes the

words of the heroic Achilles (whom Socrates referenced while defending

philosophy as a virtuous pursuit in the Apology ) in defining science

as an honest, honorable pursuit: “As I detest the doorways of death,

so too do I detest that man who speaks forth one thing while hiding in

his heart another.” (Achilles in Homer’s Iliad )

The first principle is that you must not fool yourself—and you are the

easiest person to fool. … You just have to be honest in a conventional

way after that. . . I would like to add something that's not essential

to the science, but something I kind of believe, which is that you

should not fool the layman when you're talking as a scientist. . . I'm

talking about a specific, extra type of integrity that is not lying,

but bending over backwards to show how you are maybe wrong, that you

ought to have when acting as a scientist. And this is our

responsibility as scientists, certainly to other scientists, and I

think to laymen. . . If you're representing yourself as a scientist,

then you should explain to the layman what you're doing—and if they

don't want to support you under those circumstances, then that's their

decision. –Feynman, Cargo Cult Science

To me there has never been a higher source of earthly honor or

distinction than that connected with advances in science. –Newton

Errors are not in the art but in the artificers. –Newton

MDT and the GPS Clocks/Twins Paradox

My solution was really for the very concept of time, that is, that

time is not absolutely defined but there is an inseparable connection

between time and the signal [light] velocity. –Einstein

Anyone who uses or benefits from GPS readily admits the glaring

asymmetry in the twins paradox, and thus that there must be a frame of

absolute rest and a frame of absolute motion. Now Einstein’s

Principle of Relativity is also absolutely true, as due to MDT’s dx4/

dt=ic’s inextricable linking of light, time, change, and dimension in

all acts of measurements, it is impossible to conduct experiments

allowing one to fathom relative motion in the confines of an inertial

frame. But the empirical fact that the GPS clocks on the orbiting

satellites must be adjusted for relativistic time dilation, testify to

the fact that their frame of reference is fundamentally different from

the earthbound clocks’. MDT accounts for this asymmetry in the twin

paradox/GPS, while also fully supporting the mathematics of Einstein’s

relativity and Principle of Relativity, which is derived from dx4/

dt=ic in Dr. E’s Time as an Emergent Phenomena. MDT proposes a frame

of absolute motion—the fourth expanding dimension which photons surf,

supported by the empirical facts that 1) a photon is in a state of

absolute motion, having no rest mass; and 2) a timeless, ageless,

nonlocal photon remains in one place in the fourth dimension, whose

expansion is the source of nonlocality.

Experimental Proofs of MDT

In addition to the GPS asymmetry which proves MDT, let us study the

fourth dimension via experiment in earthbound labs. A photon, which

is known to stay stationary in the fourth dimension, provides the

ideal physical entity and tool to probe and characterize the fourth

dimension on a physical level, so let us study a photon as it is

emitted from a source. Via numerous experiments ranging from double-

slit interference experiments to those demonstrating nonlocal

entanglement, the photon, in its simplest, most natural form, exists

as a nonlocal, spherically-symmetric, probabilistic wave-front

expanding at c. As relativity tells us that the timeless, ageless,

nonlocal photon remains in one place in the fourth dimension, we can

empirically deduce that the fourth dimension must be a spherically-

symmetric expanding wavefront of locality, supported directly by

experimental evidence and observation, thusly proving MDT’s postulate

of a fourth expanding dimension and equation dx4/dt=ic.

I think that in the discussion of natural problems we ought to begin

not with the Scriptures, but with experiments, and demonstrations . –

Galileo

By denying scientific principles, one may maintain any paradox . –

Galileo

A man may imagine things that are false, but he can only understand

things that are true, for if the things be false, the apprehension of

them is not understanding . –Isaac Newton

Conclusion

What is ultimately possible in physics? Physics! MDT & dx4/dt=ic!

Gradually the conviction gained recognition that all knowledge about

things is exclusively a working-over of the raw material furnished by

the senses. ... Galileo and Hume first upheld this principle with full

clarity and decisiveness . -Einstein

Fig. 1: MDT’S concrete physical mechanism for Einstein’s Principle of

Relativity, nonlocality, entanglement, QM’s probabilistic, nonlocal

character, time’s radiative arrow and asymmetry, Huygens’ Principle,

pilot waves, entropy, the constancy of c, the independence of c from

the source, and the timeless, ageless photon: dx4/dt=ic. As photons

remain in the same place (agelessness/entanglement) in the fourth

dimension which expands in a spherically symmetric manner, radiation

appears as expanding (never shrinking) probabilistic spherically-

symmetric wavefronts (time’s radiative arrow). Entangled photons have

a higher chance of being found further apart over time (entropy).

Many more MDT figures and text were edited out due to length

limitations.

with Galileo, Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, Planck, Einstein, Schrodinger,

Bohr, and the Greats towards Moving Dimensions Theory. E pur si

muove!

by Dr. Elliot McGucken

ABSTRACT:

Over the past few decades prominent physicists have noted that physics

has diverged away from its heroic journey defined by boldly

describing, fathoming, and characterizing foundational truths of

physical reality via simple, elegant, logically-consistent postulates

and equations humbling themselves before empirical reality. Herein

the spirit of physics is again exalted by the heroic words of the

Greats—by Galileo, Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, Planck, Einstein, Bohr,

and Schrodinger—the Founding Fathers upon whose shoulders physics

stands. And from that pinnacle, a novel physical theory is proposed,

complete with a novel physical model celebrating a hitherto unsung

universal invariant and an equation reflecting the foundational

physical reality of a fourth dimension expanding relative to the three

spatial dimensions at the rate of c, or dx4/dt=ic, providing both the

“elementary foundations” for relativity and QM’s “characteristic

trait”—entanglement, and its nonlocal, probabilistic nature. From

MDT’s experimentally-verified equation relativity is derived while

time is unfrozen and free will exalted, while a physical model

accounting for quantum nonlocality is presented. Entropy, Huygens’

Principle; the wave/particle, energy/mass, space/time, and E/B

dualities; and time and all its arrows and asymmetries emerge from a

common, foundational physical model. MDT exalts Einstein’s “empirical

facts,” “naturalness,” and “logical simplicity.” For the first time

in the history of relativity, change is woven into the fabric of space-

time, and the timeless, ageless, nonlocal photon of Galileo’s/

Einstein’s “empirical world” is explained via a foundational physical

model, alongside the fact that c is both constant and the maximum

velocity in the universe. The empirical GPS clocks’ time dilation/

twins paradox is resolved by proposing a frame of absolute rest—the

three spatial dimensions, and a frame of absolute motion—the fourth

expanding dimension upon which ageless photons of zero rest mass surf;

which underlie and give rise to Einstein’s Principle of Relativity.

When the solution is simple, God is answering. –Einstein

If, relative to K, K' is a uniformly moving co-ordinate system devoid

of rotation, then natural phenomena run their course with respect to

K' according to exactly the same general laws as with respect to K.

This statement is called the principle of relativity. –Einstein, 1954

No great discovery was ever made without a bold guess. –Newton

For an idea that does not at first seem insane, there is no hope. -

Einstein

If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the

shoulders of giants. –Newton

In questions of science, the authority of thousands is not worth the

humble reasoning of one individual. –Galileo

Books on physics are full of complicated mathematical formulae. But

thought and ideas (the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the

three spatial dimensions at c), not formulae, are the beginning of

every physical theory. —Einstein/Infeld, The Evolution of Physics

But before mankind could be ripe for a science which takes in the

whole of reality, a second fundamental truth was needed, which only

became common property among philosophers with the advent of Kepler

and Galileo. Pure logical thinking cannot yield us any knowledge of

the empirical world; all knowledge of reality starts from experience

and ends in it. Propositions arrived at by purely logical means are

completely empty as regards reality. Because Galileo saw this, and

particularly because he drummed it into the scientific world, he is

the father of modern physics—indeed, of modern science altogether. -

Einstein , Ideas and Opinions

Epur si muove – (And yet it does move.) –Galileo

.. my dear Kepler, what do you think of the foremost philosophers of

this University? In spite of my oft-repeated efforts and invitations,

they have refused, with the obstinacy of a glutted adder, to look at

the planets or Moon or my telescope. –Galileo

A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents

and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents

eventually die, and a new generation grows up with it. -Planck

…my observations have convinced me that some men, reasoning

preposterously, first establish some conclusion in their minds which,

either because of its being their own or because of their having

received it from some person who has their entire confidence,

impresses them so deeply that one finds it impossible ever to get it

out of their heads. Such arguments in support of their fixed idea ...

gain their instant acceptance … whatever is brought forward against

it, however ingenious and conclusive, they receive with disdain or

with hot rage … Beside themselves with passion, some of them would not

be backward even about scheming to suppress and silence their

adversaries.... No good can come of dealing with such people . . .

their company may be not only unpleasant but dangerous. –Galileo

Millions saw the apple fall, but Newton was the one who asked why. –

Baruch

What is Possible in Physics? Physics! Moving Dimensions Theory

We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both

true and sufficient to explain their appearances. –Newton

Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. –

Einstein

A physical theory can be satisfactory only if its structures are

composed of elementary foundations. The theory of relativity is

ultimately as little satisfactory as, for example, classical

thermodynamics was before Boltzmann had interpreted the entropy as

probability. –Einstein

When two systems, of which we know the states by their respective

representatives, enter into temporary physical interaction due to

known forces between them, and when after a time of mutual influence

the systems separate again, then they can no longer be described in

the same way as before, viz. by endowing each of them with a

representative of its own. I would not call that one but rather the

characteristic trait of quantum mechanics, the one that enforces its

entire departure from classical lines of thought. By the interaction

the two representatives [the quantum states] have become entangled. -

Schrodinger

MDT provides both the “elementary foundations” of relativity that

Einstein yet sought, and the foundational physical reality underlying

and causing quantum nonlocality and entanglement, which Schrodinger

labeled the “characteristic trait” of QM. Einstein's Principle of

Relativity, as well as his two postulates, derive from MDT's simple

physical model (Fig. 1) and single postulate which is more concise and

has the added benefits of providing for free will, liberating us from

the block universe, weaving change into the fundamental fabric of

space-time for the first time in the history of relativity, and

providing an elementary, foundational physical model for time and all

its arrows and asymmetries, entropy, and QM’s nonlocality and

entanglement, as well as reality's probabilistic nature. The fourth

dimension is inherently nonlocal via its invariant expansion, which is

the source of nonlocality as well as relativity. All of this is more

fully developed in Dr. E’s 2008 paper on MDT which examines Einstein’s

1912 Manuscript on Relativity and derives relativity from MDT’s dx4/

dt=ic: Time as an Emergent Phenomenon: Traveling Back to the Heroic

Age of Physics: fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/238 & fqxi.org/

community/forum/topic/432.

Simple, logical proofs of MDT:

MDT PROOF#1: Relativity tells us that a timeless, ageless photon

remains in one place in the fourth dimension. Quantum mechanics tells

us that a photon propagates as a spherically-symmetric expanding

wavefront at the velocity of c. Ergo, the fourth dimension must be

expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c,

in a spherically-symmetric manner. The expansion of the fourth

dimension is the source of nonlocality, entanglement, time and all its

arrows and asymmetries, c, relativity, entropy, free will, and all

motion, change, and measurement, for no measurement can be made

without change. For the first time in the history of relativity,

change has been wedded to the fundamental fabric of spacetime in MDT.

MDT PROOF#2: Einstein (1912 Man. on Rel.) and Minkowski wrote

x4=ict. Ergo dx4/dt=ic.

MDT PROOF#3: The only way to stay stationary in the three spatial

dimensions is to move at c through the fourth dimension. The only way

to stay stationary in the fourth dimension is to move at c through the

three spatial dimensions. Ergo the fourth dimension is moving at c

relative to the three spatial dimensions.

MDT twitter proof (limited to 140 characters): SR: photon is

stationary in 4th dimension. QM: photon is probability wave expanding

@ c. Ergo: 4th dimension expands @ c & MDT: dx4/dt=ic –from

http://twitter.com/45surf

A people that were to honor falsehood, defamation, fraud, and murder

would be unable, indeed, to subsist for very long. –Einstein

MDT Sides With the Simplicity of the Heroic Greats in Word, Equation,

and Deed

MDT presents a new universal invariant reflecting a foundational

physical reality of a fourth expanding dimension—an elementary law

from which Einstein's Principle of Relativity can be built by pure

deduction. Begin with a universe with four dimensions x1, x2, x3, x4

where the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial

dimensions at the rate of c, dx4/dt=ic, and all of relativity is shown

to naturally emerge in Dr. E’s above paper, as does quantum mechanics'

nonlocality and entanglement, wave-particle duality, space-time

duality, mass-energy duality, entropy, and time and all its arrows and

asymmetries.

Behind it all is surely an idea so simple, so beautiful, that when we

grasp it - in a decade, a century, or a millennium—we will all say to

each other, how could it have been otherwise? How could we have been

so stupid? –Wheeler

Three Rules of Work: Out of clutter find simplicity; From discord find

harmony; In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity. –Einstein

MDT presents a physical principle more fundamental than Einstein's

Principle of Relativity, as all of relativity naturally emerges from

MDT's postulate, along with time and all its arrows. And too, MDT,

via the natural smearing of locality into nonlocality heralded via the

expansion of the fourth dimension, provides a physical model for

quantum entanglement—that which Schrodinger stated was the

“characteristic trait” of quantum mechanics. So it is that MDT

provides a common, foundational physical model for quantum mechanics

and relativity, thusly unifying them on a physical level. A simple

postulate and equation dx4/dt=ic bestows upon us a myriad of profound

consequences across all realms of physics—granting us both the

“elementary foundations” for relativity that Einstein yet sought,

while also providing the elementary foundations for Schrodinger’s

“characteristic trait” of QM—entanglement. MDT rides with the

simplicity of the heroic Greats in word, equation, and deed:

Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more

violent. It takes a touch of genius—and a lot of courage—to move in

the opposite direction. –Einstein

Mathematicians may flatter themselves that they possess new ideas

which mere human language is as yet unable to express. Let them make

the effort to express these ideas in appropriate words without the aid

of symbols, and if they succeed they will not only lay us laymen under

a lasting obligation, but, we venture to say, they will find

themselves very much enlightened during the process, and will even be

doubtful whether the ideas as expressed in symbols had ever quite

found their way out of the equations into their minds. –Maxwell

I don't believe in mathematics. –Einstein

Do not worry about your difficulties in mathematics, I assure you that

mine are greater. –Einstein

Geometry is not true, it is advantageous. –Poincare

In Einstein's Mistakes, Dr. Hans Ohanian reports on how physics

advances via the emphasis not on math, but on physical reality, “(Max)

Born described the weak point in Einstein's work in those final years:

“. . . now he tried to do without any empirical facts, by pure

thinking. He believed in the power of reason to guess the laws

according to which God built the world.”” MDT exalts nature and the

physical reality of a timeless, ageless photon, providing a simple,

unifying physical model for entropy, statistical mechanics,

relativity, and quantum mechanics.

A good decision is based on knowledge and not on numbers. –Plato

Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can

be counted counts. –Einstein

Mathematics are well and good but nature keeps dragging us around by

the nose. –Einstein

In Disturbing the Universe, Freeman Dyson writes, “Dick [Feynman]

fought back against my skepticism, arguing that Einstein had failed

because he stopped thinking in concrete physical images and became a

manipulator of equations. I had to admit that was true. The great

discoveries of Einstein's earlier years were all based on direct

physical intuition. Einstein's later unified theories failed because

they were only sets of equations without physical meaning. Dick's sum-

over-histories theory was in the spirit of the young Einstein, not of

the old Einstein. It was solidly rooted in physical reality.” In The

Trouble With Physics, Lee Smolin writes that Bohr was not a Feynman

“shut up and calculate” physicist, and from the above Dyson quote, it

appears that Feynman wasn't either. Lee writes, “Mara Beller, a

historian who has studied his [Bohr's] work in detail, points out that

there was not a single calculation in his research notebooks, which

were all verbal arguments and pictures.” Please see MDT’s Fig. 1 at

the end of this document. (Many more to come!)

In Dark Matters, Dr. Percy Seymour writes, “Albert Einstein was a

great admirer of Newton, Faraday, and Maxwell. In his office he had

framed copies of portraits of these scientists. He had this to say

about Faraday and Maxwell: “The greatest change in the axiomatic basis

of physics—in other words, of our conception of the structure—since

Newton laid the foundation of theoretical physics was brought about by

Faraday's and Maxwell's work on electromagnetic phenomena.”

In his book Einstein, Banesh Hoffman (and Faraday) exalts physical

reality over mere math:

Meanwhile, however, the English experimenter Michael Farady was making

outstanding experimental discoveries in electricity and magnetism.

Being largely self-taught and lacking mathematical facility, he could

not interpret his results in the manner of Ampere. And this was

fortunate, since it led to a revolution in science. . . most

physicists adept at mathematics thought his concepts mathematically

naïve.

MDT Asks: Why Relativity, Entanglement, Entropy, Nonlocality, and

Time?

The important thing is not to stop questioning. –Einstein

It is interesting that Einstein introduced relativity as a principle—

as a primary law not deduced from anything else. Millions have seen

Einstein’s relativity born out via experiment, but it was I who asked,

“why relativity?” What physical model—what deeper physical reality

underlies relativity? And I found the answer in a more fundamental

invariance—the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three

spatial dimensions, or dx4/dt = ic. Change is fundamentally embedded

in space-time. And not only can all of relativity be derived from

this, but suddenly we have a physical model for entropy, time and its

arrows and asymmetries in all realms, free will, and quantum

nonlocality and entanglement. MDT accounts for the constant speed of

light c—both its independence of the source and its independence of

the velocity of the observer, while establishing it as the fastest,

slowest, and *only* velocity for all entities and objects moving

through space-time, as well as the maximum velocity that anything is

measured to move. And suddenly we see a physical basis for E=mc2.

Energy and mass are the same thing—it's just that energy is mass

caught upon the fourth expanding dimension, and thus it surfs along at

c.

In Einstein's Mistakes, Ohanian writes, “Einstein acknowledged his

debt to Newton and to Maxwell, but he was not fully aware of the

extent of Galileo's fatherhood. In an introduction he wrote for

Galileo's celebrated Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems,

he faults Galileo for failing to produce a general mathematical

proof. Galileo regarded relativity as an empirical, observational

fact, that is, a law of nature, and Einstein's own formulation of the

Principle of Relativity three hundred years later imitated Galileo's

in treating this principle as a law of nature and not as a

mathematical deduction from anything else.”

Einstein’s Principle of Relativity Derived from MDT: MDT’s Diverse

Successes

Well, MDT provides a more fundamental law with an equation: dx4/dt =

ic, from which relativity is derived in Dr. E’s above paper. An added

benefit are all the other entities dx4/dt=ic accounts for with a

physical model, ranging from entropy, to QM's entanglement and

nonlocality, to time and all its arrows. MDT accomplishes a diverse

array of physical feats:

provides the “elementary foundations” for Einstein’s relativity and

Schrodinger’s “characteristic trait” of QM—entanglement.

unfreezes time & liberates us from the block universe, allowing for

and exalting free will

weaves change into the fundamental fabric of space-time for the first

time in the history of relativity

derives relativity from a more fundamental universal invariant: dx4/

dt=ic

provides a physical model for entropy

provides a physical model for quantum entanglement (QM’s

characteristic trait)

provides a physical mechanism for nonlocality—the fourth expanding

dimension distributes locality

provides a physical model unifying the dualities—space/time, energy/

mass, wave/particle, E/B

provides a physical model for the invariance of c—both its

independence of the source and its independence of the observer

provides a physical model for the spherically-symmetric expanding

wave-front of probability that defines a photon's path

offers a resolution for both the EPR Paradox and Godel's problems

with the block universe relativity implied

offers a physical model for why nothing can move faster than c.

offers an intuitive model for the length-contraction can accompanies

all motion

accounts for both the agelessness (from relativity—nonlocality in

time) and the nonlocality (from QM) of the photon

accounts for the gravitational slowing of time and light, as well as

the gravitational redshift

provides a unique physical model underlying wide-ranging phenomena in

quantum mechanics, relativity, and statistical mechanics.

*provides a physical model for time and all its arrows and asymmetries

MDT & Nobel Laureate Physicists vs. String Theory/LQG

MDT was inspired in part by Einstein's words pertaining to the higher

purpose of physical theories:

Before I enter upon a critique of mechanics as a foundation of

physics, something of a broadly general nature will first have to be

said concerning the points of view according to which it is possible

to criticize physical theories at all. The first point of view is

obvious: The theory must not contradict empirical facts. . . The

second point of view is not concerned with the relation to the

material of observation but with the premises of the theory itself,

with what may briefly but vaguely be characterized as the

“naturalness” or “logical simplicity” of the premises (of the basic

concepts and of the relations between these which are taken as a

basis). This point of view, an exact formulation of which meets with

great difficulties, has played an important role in the selection and

evaluation of theories since time immemorial. –Einstein

Contrast MDT’s elegant, unifying successes with String Theory's “not

even wrongishness.” The first page of String Theory in a Nutshell

states in a footnoted sentence:

String Theory has been the leading candidate … for a theory that

consistently unifies all the fundamental forces of nature, including

gravity. It gained popularity because it provides a theory that is UV

finite.(1) . . . The footnote (1) reads: “Although there is no

rigorous proof to all orders that the theory is UV finite...” –STRING

THEORY IN A NUTSHELL

So you see, string theory is not a finite theory, but this is

generally kept to the footnotes, when mentioned at all. Many Nobel

Laureate physicists harbor reservations regarding strings:

We don’t know what we are talking about . --Nobel Laureate David Gross

on string theory

It is anomalous to replace the four-dimensional continuum by a five-

dimensional one and then subsequently to tie up artificially one of

those five dimensions in order to account for the fact that it does

not manifest itself. -Einstein to Ehrenfest (Imagine doing this for

10-30+ dimensions!)

String theorists don't make predictions, they make excuses . –

Feynman, Nobel Laureate

String theory is like a 50 year old woman wearing too much lipstick. -

Robert Laughlin, Nobel Laureate

Actually, I would not even be prepared to call string theory a

“theory” rather a “model” or not even that: just a hunch. After all, a

theory should come together with instructions on how to deal with it

to identify the things one wishes to describe, in our case the

elementary particles, and one should, at least in principle, be able

to formulate the rules for calculating the properties of these

particles, and how to make new predictions for them. Imagine that I

give you a chair, while explaining that the legs are still missing,

and that the seat, back and armrest will perhaps be delivered soon;

whatever I did give you, can I still call it a chair? –‘t Hooft,

Nobel Laureate

It is tragic, but now, we have the string theorists, thousands of

them, that also dream of explaining all the features of nature. They

just celebrated the 20th anniversary of superstring theory. So when

one person spends 30 years, it's a waste, but when thousands waste 20

years in modern day, they celebrate with champagne. I find that

curious. -Glashow, Nobel Laureate

I don't like that they're not calculating anything. I don't like that

they don't check their ideas. I don't like that for anything that

disagrees with an experiment, they cook up an explanation-a fix-up to

say, “Well, it might be true.” For example, the theory requires ten

dimensions. Well, maybe there's a way of wrapping up six of the

dimensions. Yes, that's all possible mathematically, but why not

seven? . . . So the fact that it might disagree with experience is

very tenuous, it doesn't produce anything; it has to be excused most

of the time. It doesn't look right. -Feynman

But superstring physicists have not yet shown that theory really

works. They cannot demonstrate that the standard theory is a logical

outcome of string theory. They cannot even be sure that their

formalism includes a description of such things as protons and

electrons. And they have not yet made even one teeny-tiny experimental

prediction. Worst of all, superstring theory does not follow as a

logical consequence of some appealing set of hypotheses about nature.

—Glashow

The great irony of string theory, however, is that the theory itself

is not unified. . . For a theory that makes the claim of providing a

unifying framework for all physical laws, it is the supreme irony that

the theory itself appears so disunited!! Introduction to

Superstrings & M-Theory –Kaku

If Einstein were alive today, he would be horrified at this state of

affairs. He would upbraid the profession for allowing this mess to

develop and fly into a blind rage over the transformation of his

beautiful creations into ideologies and the resulting proliferation of

logical inconsistencies. Einstein was an artist and a scholar but

above all he was a revolutionary. His approach to physics might be

summarized as hypothesizing minimally. Never arguing with experiment,

demanding total logical consistency, and mistrusting unsubstantiated

beliefs. The unsubstantial belief of his day was ether, or more

precisely the naïve version of ether that preceded relativity. The

unsubstantiated belief of our day is relativity itself. It would be

perfectly in character for him to reexamine the facts, toss them over

in his mind, and conclude that his beloved principle of relativity was

not fundamental at all but emergent (emergent from MDT!) . . . It

would mean that the fabric of space-time was not simply the stage on

which life played out but an organizational phenomenon, and that there

might be something beyond. (MDT!) -A Different Universe, Laughlin,

Nobel Laureate

[String Theory] has no practical utility, however, other than to

sustain the myth of the ultimate theory. There is no experimental

evidence for the existence of strings in nature, nor does the special

mathematics of string theory enable known experimental behavior to be

calculated or predicted more easily. . . String theory is, in fact, a

textbook case of Deceitful Turkey, a beautiful set of ideas that will

always remain just barely out of reach. Far from a wonderful

technological hope for a greater tomorrow, it is instead the tragic

consequence of an obsolete belief system-in which emergence plays no

role and dark law does not exist. —A Different Universe, Laughlin

MDT and Socrates’ & Feynman’s Honorable Pursuit of Truth

MDT delivers an ultimate theory underlying Huygens’ Principle which

Feynman’s many-paths formulation of QM also exalts, whereas Loop

Quantum Gravity and String Theory only sustain a myth of an ultimate

theory. Nobel Laureates have referred to this present era as the

dark ages of physics, where progress in physics is frozen in a block

universe tied together with tiny, vibrating strings and little loops

which nobody has ever physically seen, violating the fundamental maxim

of science put forth by Galileo, Einstein, et. al. Feynman echoes the

words of the heroic Achilles (whom Socrates referenced while defending

philosophy as a virtuous pursuit in the Apology ) in defining science

as an honest, honorable pursuit: “As I detest the doorways of death,

so too do I detest that man who speaks forth one thing while hiding in

his heart another.” (Achilles in Homer’s Iliad )

The first principle is that you must not fool yourself—and you are the

easiest person to fool. … You just have to be honest in a conventional

way after that. . . I would like to add something that's not essential

to the science, but something I kind of believe, which is that you

should not fool the layman when you're talking as a scientist. . . I'm

talking about a specific, extra type of integrity that is not lying,

but bending over backwards to show how you are maybe wrong, that you

ought to have when acting as a scientist. And this is our

responsibility as scientists, certainly to other scientists, and I

think to laymen. . . If you're representing yourself as a scientist,

then you should explain to the layman what you're doing—and if they

don't want to support you under those circumstances, then that's their

decision. –Feynman, Cargo Cult Science

To me there has never been a higher source of earthly honor or

distinction than that connected with advances in science. –Newton

Errors are not in the art but in the artificers. –Newton

MDT and the GPS Clocks/Twins Paradox

My solution was really for the very concept of time, that is, that

time is not absolutely defined but there is an inseparable connection

between time and the signal [light] velocity. –Einstein

Anyone who uses or benefits from GPS readily admits the glaring

asymmetry in the twins paradox, and thus that there must be a frame of

absolute rest and a frame of absolute motion. Now Einstein’s

Principle of Relativity is also absolutely true, as due to MDT’s dx4/

dt=ic’s inextricable linking of light, time, change, and dimension in

all acts of measurements, it is impossible to conduct experiments

allowing one to fathom relative motion in the confines of an inertial

frame. But the empirical fact that the GPS clocks on the orbiting

satellites must be adjusted for relativistic time dilation, testify to

the fact that their frame of reference is fundamentally different from

the earthbound clocks’. MDT accounts for this asymmetry in the twin

paradox/GPS, while also fully supporting the mathematics of Einstein’s

relativity and Principle of Relativity, which is derived from dx4/

dt=ic in Dr. E’s Time as an Emergent Phenomena. MDT proposes a frame

of absolute motion—the fourth expanding dimension which photons surf,

supported by the empirical facts that 1) a photon is in a state of

absolute motion, having no rest mass; and 2) a timeless, ageless,

nonlocal photon remains in one place in the fourth dimension, whose

expansion is the source of nonlocality.

Experimental Proofs of MDT

In addition to the GPS asymmetry which proves MDT, let us study the

fourth dimension via experiment in earthbound labs. A photon, which

is known to stay stationary in the fourth dimension, provides the

ideal physical entity and tool to probe and characterize the fourth

dimension on a physical level, so let us study a photon as it is

emitted from a source. Via numerous experiments ranging from double-

slit interference experiments to those demonstrating nonlocal

entanglement, the photon, in its simplest, most natural form, exists

as a nonlocal, spherically-symmetric, probabilistic wave-front

expanding at c. As relativity tells us that the timeless, ageless,

nonlocal photon remains in one place in the fourth dimension, we can

empirically deduce that the fourth dimension must be a spherically-

symmetric expanding wavefront of locality, supported directly by

experimental evidence and observation, thusly proving MDT’s postulate

of a fourth expanding dimension and equation dx4/dt=ic.

I think that in the discussion of natural problems we ought to begin

not with the Scriptures, but with experiments, and demonstrations . –

Galileo

By denying scientific principles, one may maintain any paradox . –

Galileo

A man may imagine things that are false, but he can only understand

things that are true, for if the things be false, the apprehension of

them is not understanding . –Isaac Newton

Conclusion

What is ultimately possible in physics? Physics! MDT & dx4/dt=ic!

Gradually the conviction gained recognition that all knowledge about

things is exclusively a working-over of the raw material furnished by

the senses. ... Galileo and Hume first upheld this principle with full

clarity and decisiveness . -Einstein

Fig. 1: MDT’S concrete physical mechanism for Einstein’s Principle of

Relativity, nonlocality, entanglement, QM’s probabilistic, nonlocal

character, time’s radiative arrow and asymmetry, Huygens’ Principle,

pilot waves, entropy, the constancy of c, the independence of c from

the source, and the timeless, ageless photon: dx4/dt=ic. As photons

remain in the same place (agelessness/entanglement) in the fourth

dimension which expands in a spherically symmetric manner, radiation

appears as expanding (never shrinking) probabilistic spherically-

symmetric wavefronts (time’s radiative arrow). Entangled photons have

a higher chance of being found further apart over time (entropy).

Many more MDT figures and text were edited out due to length

limitations.