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Maxwell's equations
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n***@gmail.com
2017-11-07 21:21:05 UTC
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§ 26. Maxwell's Equations





With the method developed in the derivation of the equations of the atomic orbitals allows for the derivation of Maxwell's equations and Maxwell's structure of light. Maxwell's electric curl equation is derived using Faraday's wire loop induction effect represented with the magnetic flux (fig 15),





emf = - ʃʃ (dB/dt)· dA...........................................89





A second wire loop emf equation is used that represents the internal electric field E that forms the wire loop emf,





emf = ʃ E · dl.......................................................90





Equating equations 89 and 90,





ʃ E · dl = - ʃʃ (dB/dt)· dA.......................................91





Using Stokes' theorem (Hecht, p. 649),





ʃ E · dl = - ʃʃ (∇ x E)· dA......................................92





Equating equations 91 and 92,





- ʃʃ(dB/dt)· dA = ʃʃ (∇ x E)· dA.............................93





Maxwell electric curl equation is derived using equation 93,





∇ x E = - dB/dt...................................................94






Faraday's induction effect depicts an internal electric current that only forms within the conduction wire represented in equation 90 yet Maxwell's electric curl equation (equ 94) is used to represent an electric field of an electromagnetic light wave that exists in the space outside the conduction wire which violates Faraday's induction mechanism. Furthermore, Faraday's induction effect is not luminous yet Maxwell's equations are used to represent the structure of light. In addition, the magnetic flux of Faraday's induction effect is pointing in the direction of the propagation which represents a longitudinal magnetic wave yet Maxwell's electric curl equation is being used to derive the electromagnetic transverse wave equations of light.




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n***@gmail.com
2017-11-07 22:07:55 UTC
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n***@gmail.com
2017-11-07 22:57:55 UTC
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Maxwell's magnetic curl equation is derived using Ampere's law (Hecht, p. 42),





ʃ B · dl = ui..........................................................95

..



Maxwell electric current (dE/dt), that forms in the space between a varying capacitor (fig 16), is added to Ampere's law,





ʃ B · dl = ʃʃ (J + ε dE/dt) · dA ..............................96





Using Stokes' theorem, on the left side of equation 96 forms (Hecht, p. 649),





ʃ B · dl = ʃʃ (∇ x B) · dA........................................97





Equating equations 96 and 97 then using J = 0,





ʃʃ (ε dE/dt)· dA = ʃʃ (∇ x B) · dA............................98





Maxwell's magnetic curl equation is derived using equation 98,





∇ x B = 1/c (dE/dt)..............................................99





Hecht's electric current (dE/dt) forms in the open space between the plates of a varying capacitor which conflicts with Faraday's induction effect that electric current only forms within the current wire. Also, in Maxwell's derivation of Maxwell's equations, Maxwell only uses Faraday's induction effect to derive Maxwell's equations (Maxwell, Part III) yet Hecht's derivation of the magnetic curl equation is based on a varying capacitor which conflicts with Maxwell's derivation. Plus, Hecht is using Stokes' theorem to derive equations 92 and 97 that depict the equating a line integral with a surface integral which is mathematically invalid.
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-08 21:10:40 UTC
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§ 27. Maxwell's Structure of Light





The electromagnetic transverse wave equations of light are derived using Maxwell's equations,





∇ x E = - dB/dt........................∇ x B = 1/c (dE/dt).....................................100a,b





Maxwell's curl equations (equ 100a,b) are expanded to form,





dEz/dy - dEy/dz = - dBx/dt...........................................................................101




dEx/dz - dEz/dx = - dBy/dt..........................................................................102




dEy/dx - dEx/dy = - dBz/dt...........................................................................103



...........................................................




dBz/dy - dBy/dz = 1/c (dEx/dt)....................................................................104




dBx/dz - dBz/dx = 1/c (dEy/dt)...................................................................105




dBy/dx - dBx/dy = 1/c (dEz/dt)..................................................... ..............106




The z-direction electric transverse wave equations is derived using equations 101 and 105 by eliminating dEy/dz and dBz/dx to form (Jenkins, p. 410),




dEy/dz = 1/c (dBx/dt)..............................dBx/dz = 1/c (dEy/dt)...................107a,b





Differentiating equation 107a, with the respect to d/dz, and equation 107b with respect to d/dt produces (Condon, p, 1-108),





d2Ey/d2z = 1/c (d2Bx/dtdz)......................d2Bx/dtdz = 1/c (d2Ey/d2t)...........108a,b





Equating equations 108a,b,



d2Ey/d2z = 1/c2 (d2Ey/d2t)..........................................................................109




Differentiating equation 107a, with the respect to d/dt, and equation 107b with respect to d/dz produces ,




d2Ey/dtdz = 1/c (d2Bx/d2t)......................d2Bx/d2z = 1/c (d2Ey/dtdz)...........110a,b





Equating equations 110a,b forms,



d2Bx/d2z = 1/c2 (d2Bx/d2t)..........................................................................111



Equations 109 and 111 are used to derive the z direction electromagnetic transverse wave equations of light (fig 17),





Ey = Eo cos(kz - wt) ĵ ..............................................................................112



Bx = Bo cos(kz -wt) î ................................................................................113



To test the derivation, the z-directional electric and magnetic transverse wave equations of light (equ 112 & 113) are used in equation 107a,





d/dz[Eo cos(kz - wt)] ĵ = - (1/c) d/dt[Bo cos(kz - wt)] î.........................114





Equation 114 forms,





Eo ĵ = Bo î ............................................................................................115






Equation 107a that is used to derive the electromagnetic transverse wave equations of light produces a unite vector catastrophe (equ 115) since Maxwell's equations represents electromagnetic longitudinal waves. Also, in the derivation of equations 107a,b, 14 of the 18 differential components that constitute Maxwell's equations are eliminated; consequently, the electromagnetic wave equations of light are derive by only using a faction of the differential components that constitute Maxwell's equations.





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Part B
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-08 23:11:25 UTC
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§ 2. Huygens



In Huygens' paper, "Treatise on Light" (1690), Huygens describes Roemer's observation of the period of Io that produces a 10 minute time delay.

"But that which I employed only as a hypothesis, has recently received great seemingness as an established truth by the ingenious proof of Mr. Römer which I am going here to relate, expecting him himself to give all that is needed for its confirmation. It is founded as is the preceding argument upon celestial observations, and proves not only that Light takes time for its passage, but also demonstrates how much time it takes, and that its velocity is even at least six times greater than that which I have just stated. For this he makes use of the Eclipses suffered by the little planets which revolve around Jupiter, and which often enter his shadow: and see what is his reasoning." (Huygens, p. 8-9).



"Hence, if light would travel the diameter of the Earth in one second, it would travel each interval FG and KL in 3 1/2 minutes. This should lead to a deviation of about half an hour between two revolutions of this satellite observed in FG and KL respectively. On the other hand, nothing of such a substantial difference has been found." (Roemer, p. 276).


"For instance, 40 revolutions observed from the side F should be substantially shorter that 40 other revolutions, observed from the opposite side (this effect is independent of any position in the Zodiac where Jupiter would be located), and this is in a ratio of 22 to the interval HE, which is twice the distance from us to the Sun.The necessity of the new equation of delayed light was established by all the observations obtained at the Royal Academy and the Observatory during the past 8 years. This was verified later, by the appearance of the first satellite from the shadow of Jupiter, observed in the evening 5h35m45s on November 9 of this year, in Paris, that occurred 10 minutes later than it was expected on the basis of the observations produced in August, when the Earth was much closer to Jupiter; this was predicted by monsieur Rømer, at the Academy in the beginning of September ." (Roemer, p. 277-8).

Roemer did not measure or calculate the velocity of light in his three page paper. Roemer describes the time delay of the period of Io a moon of Jupiter and the earth's orbital diameter HE. Roemer states that after a ten month time interval between November 9 and the beginning of September a 10 minute time delay of Io period was recorded that was attributed to the velocity of light.



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Huygens calculates the velocity of light using the earth's orbital diameter KL and a 22 minute time delay of the period of Io (fig 2).

"If one considers the vast size of the diameter KL, which according to me is some 24 thousand diameters of the Earth, one will acknowledge the extreme velocity of Light. For, supposing that KL is no more than 22 thousand of these diameters, it appears that being traversed in 22 minutes this makes the speed a thousand diameters in one minute, that is 16-2/3 diameters in one second or in one beat of the pulse, which makes more than 11 hundred times a hundred thousand toises; since the diameter of the Earth contains 2,865 leagues, reckoned at 25 to the degree, and each each league is 2,282 Toises, according to the exact measurement which Mr. Picard made by order of the King in 1669. But Sound, as I have said above, only travels 180 toises in the same time of one second: hence the velocity of Light is more than six hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. This, however, is quite another thing from being instantaneous, since there is all the difference between a finite thing and an infinite. Now the successive movement of Light being confirmed in this way, it follows, as I have said, that it spreads by spherical waves, like the movement of Sound." (Huygens, p. 10-11).

Huygens uses the earth's orbital diameter KL and a 22 minute time delay to calculate the velocity of light using Io a moon of Jupiter as a clock but after the earth propagates the position L where KL represents the earth's orbital diameter that is used to calculate the velocity of light, Huygens cannot view the eclipse of Io since at position L the dark side of the earth (night) is not facing Jupiter. Example, Jupiter is in opposition on May 9, 2018 and on November 9, 2018 after the earth propagates the distance of the earth's orbital diameter in a six month time period Jupiter does not appear in the night sky (http://www.seasky.org/astronomy/astronomy-calendar-2018.html
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-08 23:57:55 UTC
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LIGO---------->What do ELF radio waves that are used to justify LIGO gravity waves have to do with Michelson's experiment?
RLH
2017-11-09 18:55:19 UTC
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LIGO---------->What do ELF radio waves that are used to justify LIGO gravity waves have to do with Michelson's experiment?
One uses the other, just a more precise version?
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-09 21:26:07 UTC
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Huygens' describes light using spherical waves based on a sound wave analogy.


"We know that by means of the air, which is an invisible and impalpable body, Sound spreads around the spot where it has been produced, by a movement which is passed on successively from one part of the air to another; and that the spreading of this movement, taking place equally rapidly on all sides, ought to form spherical surfaces ever enlarging and which strike our ears. Now there is no doubt at all that light also comes from the luminous body to our eyes by some movement impressed on the matter which is between the two; since, as we have already seen, it cannot be by the transport of a body which passes from one to the other. If, in addition, light takes time for its passage—which we are now going to examine—it will follow that this movement, impressed on the intervening matter, is successive; and consequently it spreads, as Sound does, by spherical surfaces and waves" (Huygens, p. 5).

"It is true that we are here supposing a strange velocity that would be a hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. For Sound, according to what I have observed, travels about 180 Toises in the time of one Second, or in about one beat of the pulse. But this supposition ought not to seem to be an impossibility; since it is not a question of the transport of a body with so great a speed, but of a successive movement which is passed on from some bodies to others. I have then made no difficulty, in meditating on these things, in supposing that the emanation of light is accomplished with time, seeing that in this way all its phenomena can be explained, and that in following the contrary opinion everything is incomprehensible. For it has always seemed tome that even Mr. Des Cartes, whose aim has been to treat all the subjects of Physics intelligibly, and who assuredly has succeeded in this better than any one before him, has said nothing that is not full of difficulties, or even inconceivable, in dealing with Light and its properties." (Huygens, p. 7).


"the velocity of Light is more than six hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. This, however, is quite another thing from being instantaneous, since there is all the difference between a finite thing and an infinite. Now the successive movement of Light being confirmed in this way, it follows, as I have said, that it spreads by spherical waves, like the movement of Sound." (Huygens, p. 10).

Huygens' optical spherical waves are formed by the motion of an ether composed of matter yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which contradicts the existence of Huygens' ether and spherical waves. A wave is a mechanical entity that is formed by the motion of a medium, composed of matter (solid, liquid or gas). Example, air is the medium that forms sound waves which are produced by the exchange of the kinetic energies of interacting air molecules but sound cannot propagate in vacuum since vacuum is void of air molecules required in forming sound waves yet Huygens is using an acoustical analogy to represent the propagation of light. One of the most important physical characteristic of sound (air molecules) is not applicable to light since light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter (gas) yet Huygens is using an acoustical analogy to describe the propagation of light.


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Huygens is describing the formation of light waves produced by the motion of an ether, composed of matter.


"Now if one examines what this matter may be in which the movement coming from the luminous body is propagated, which I call Ethereal matter" (Huygens, p. 11).


"But the extreme velocity of Light, and other properties which it has, cannot admit of such a propagation of motion, and I am about to show here the way in which I conceive it must occur. For this, it is needful to explain the property which hard bodies must possess to transmit movement from one to another." (Huygens, p. 13).


"But it is still certain that this progression of motion is not instantaneous, but successive, and therefore must take time. For if the movement, or the disposition to movement, if you will have it so, did not pass successively through all these spheres, they would all acquire the movement at the same time, and hence would all advance together; which does not happen. For the last one leaves the whole row and acquires the speed of the one which was pushed. Moreover there are experiments which demonstrate that all the bodies which we reckon of the hardest kind, such as quenched steel, glass, and agate, act as springs and bend somehow, not only when extended as rods but also when they are in the form of spheres or of other shapes." (Huygens, p. 13).


"Now in applying this kind of movement to that which produces Light there is nothing to hinder us from estimating the particles of the ether to be of a substance as nearly approaching to perfect hardness and possessing a springiness as prompt as we choose. It is not necessary to examine here the causes of this hardness, or of that springiness, the consideration of which would lead us too far from our subject. I will say, however, in passing that we may conceive that the particles of the ether" (Huygens, p. 14).


"But though we shall ignore the true cause of springiness we still see that there are many bodies which possess this property; and thus there is nothing strange in supposing that it exists also in little invisible bodies like the particles of the Ether. Also if one wishes to seek for any other way in which the movement of Light is successively communicated, one will find none which agrees better, with uniform progression, as seems to be necessary, than the property of springiness; because if this movement should grow slower in proportion as it is shared over a greater quantity of matter, in moving away from the source of the light, it could not conserve this great velocity over great distances. But by supposing springiness in the ethereal matter, its particles will have the property of equally rapid restitution whether they are pushed strongly or feebly; and thus the propagation of Light will always go on with an equal velocity." (Huygens, p. 15).

Huygens' light waves are formed by the motion of an ether that hardness forms a springiness which transfers the energy of the luminous source through a stationary ether in the formation of propagating light waves similar to the propagation of sound waves in air yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which proves the propagation of light does not involve an ether. Furthermore, sound waves are formed by the interaction of air molecules that are propagating in random directions. The collective motion of interacting air molecules that exchange kinetic energies form sound waves yet a light ray is composed of massless optic particles that are not interacting and are propagating in a single direction at a constant velocity which conflicts with Huygens' sound wave analogy.

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Huygens states the ether propagates through glass, water or mercury and exists within the glass vacuum tube.

"This may be proved by shutting up a sounding body in a glass vessel from which the air is withdrawn by the machine which Mr. Boyle has given us, and with which he has performed so many beautiful experiments. But in doing this of which I speak, care must be taken to place the sounding body on cotton or on feathers, in such a way that it cannot communicate its tremors either to the glass vessel which encloses it, or to the machine; a precaution which has hitherto been neglected. For then after having exhausted all the air one hears no Sound from the metal, though it is struck. One sees here not only that our air, which does not penetrate through glass, is the matter by which Sound spreads; but also that it is not the same air but another kind of matter in which Light spreads; since if the air is removed from the vessel the Light does not cease to traverse it as before. And this last point is demonstrated even more clearly by the celebrated experiment of Torricelli, in which the tube of glass from which the quicksilver has withdrawn itself, remaining void of air, transmits Light just the same as when air is in it. For this proves that a matter different from air exists in this tube, and that this matter must have penetrated the glass or the quicksilver, either one or the other, though they are both impenetrable to the air. And when, in the same experiment, one makes the vacuum after putting a little water above the quicksilver, one concludes equally that the said matter passes through glass or water, or through both." (Huygens, p. 11 & 12).

Huygens' wave theory of light is based on light waves formed by the motion of an ether, composed of matter yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which contradicts Huygens' wave theory of light; consequently, Huygens states that the ether, composed of matter, propagates through glass, water or mercury that is producing the vacuum of Torricelli's glass vacuum tube but the ether propagating through glass would produce a hole in the glass or shatter the glass and the ether propagating through mercury or water would be detectable; henceforth, light propagating through the glass vacuum tube proves the propagation of light does not involve Huygens' ether.

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Huygens describes spherical waves that originate from a candle flame (fig 3).

"I have then shown in what manner one may conceive Light to spread successively, by spherical waves, and how it is possible that this spreading is accomplished with as great a velocity as that which experiments and celestial observations demand. Whence it may be further remarked that although the particles are supposed to be in continual movement (for there are many reasons for this) the successive propagation of the waves cannot be hindered by this; because the propagation consists nowise in the transport of those particles but merely in a small agitation which they cannot help communicating to those surrounding, notwithstanding any movement which may act on them causing them to be changing positions amongst themselves.

But we must consider still more particularly the origin of these waves, and the manner in which they spread. And, first, it follows from what has been said on the production of Light, that each little region of a luminous body, such as the Sun, a candle, or a burning coal, generates its own waves of which that region is the centre. Thus in the flame of a candle, having distinguished the points A, B, C, concentric circles described about each of these points represent the waves which come from them. And one must imagine the same about every point of the surface and of the part within the flame." (Huygens, p. 17).

Huygens' candle flame produces optical spherical waves, from points A, B and C, by the motion of an ether that does not exist (vacuum). Huygens dismisses the fact that light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter and describes the "agitation" of the ether particles that form Huygens' optical spherical waves but the existence of Huygens' candle flame spherical waves is contingent on the existence of an ether, composed of matter, that does not exist.


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Huygens represents the propagation of light using spherical waves represented with partial waves that points C, C, C are used to construct the wave DCF (fig 4).


"There is the further consideration in the emanation of these waves, that each particle of matter in which a wave spreads, ought not to communicate its motion only to the next particle which is in the straight line drawn from the luminous point, but that it also imparts some of it necessarily to all the others which touch it and which oppose themselves to its movement. So it arises that around each particle there is made a wave of which that particle is the centre. Thus if DCF is a wave emanating from the luminous point A, which is its centre, the particle B, one of those comprised within the sphere DCF, will have made its particular or partial wave KCL, which will touch the wave DCF at C at the same moment that the principal wave emanating from the point A has arrived at DCF." (Huygens, p. 19).



Huygens' expanding spherical waves originate from points b, b, b, along the wave HI. The far points C, C, C, of the spherical waves propagate to the wave DCF and are used to construct the wave DCF which represents Huygens' propagation mechanism of light but Huygens' wave HI is arbitrarily creating energy (spherical waves). The sun, a candle flame or a burning piece of coal are light sources that are generating light energy. Huygens' representation of the formation of spherical waves from points along the wave HI is depicting the wave front HI as a light source that is generating energy which violates energy conservation. In addition, only the far points C, C, C, of the spherical waves are used to construct the wave DCF. The remaining structures of the spherical waves are ignored after the wave DCF is constructed since the expanding spherical waves' structures would overlap the wave DCF and represent the increase in the intensity of Huygens' light beam.

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n***@gmail.com
2017-11-09 21:29:55 UTC
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"The eight-watt ELF signal radiates from the dual-site system and travels around the world through the atmospheric layer between the earth's surface and a zone of charged air particles known as the ionosphere."

Extremely Low Frequency Transmitter Site
Clam Lake, Wisconsin


US Navy fact files Page 2

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Eight Watts?
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-09 22:19:06 UTC
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" 1. A low-frequency oscillator (LFO) is an electronic oscillator that generates a frequency below approximately 20 Hz. This term is typically used in the field of audio synthesizers, to distinguish it from an audio frequency oscillator.



2. An audio oscillator produces frequencies in the audio range, about 16 Hz to 20 kHz.



3. An RF oscillator produces signals in the radio frequency (RF) range of about 10 kHz to 100 GHz." (Wikipedia, electronic oscillators, 11/9/2017)
RLH
2017-11-09 23:18:43 UTC
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" 1. A low-frequency oscillator (LFO) is an electronic oscillator that generates a frequency below approximately 20 Hz. This term is typically used in the field of audio synthesizers, to distinguish it from an audio frequency oscillator.
2. An audio oscillator produces frequencies in the audio range, about 16 Hz to 20 kHz.
3. An RF oscillator produces signals in the radio frequency (RF) range of about 10 kHz to 100 GHz." (Wikipedia, electronic oscillators, 11/9/2017)
EMR goes from the very, very long radio waves to the very short gamma rays. All are both Photons and wave packets. Get your head around that.
benj
2017-11-10 01:48:19 UTC
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" 1. A low-frequency oscillator (LFO) is an electronic oscillator that generates a frequency below approximately 20 Hz. This term is typically used in the field of audio synthesizers, to distinguish it from an audio frequency oscillator.
2. An audio oscillator produces frequencies in the audio range, about 16 Hz to 20 kHz.
3. An RF oscillator produces signals in the radio frequency (RF) range of about 10 kHz to 100 GHz." (Wikipedia, electronic oscillators, 11/9/2017)
EMR goes from the very, very long radio waves to the very short gamma rays. All are both Photons and wave packets. Get your head around that.
Prove it. ZERO evidence. Back to drawing board.
RLH
2017-11-10 02:23:48 UTC
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" 1. A low-frequency oscillator (LFO) is an electronic oscillator that generates a frequency below approximately 20 Hz. This term is typically used in the field of audio synthesizers, to distinguish it from an audio frequency oscillator.
2. An audio oscillator produces frequencies in the audio range, about 16 Hz to 20 kHz.
3. An RF oscillator produces signals in the radio frequency (RF) range of about 10 kHz to 100 GHz." (Wikipedia, electronic oscillators, 11/9/2017)
EMR goes from the very, very long radio waves to the very short gamma rays. All are both Photons and wave packets. Get your head around that.
Prove it. ZERO evidence. Back to drawing board.
Well radio, radar, and lasers work as expected. So do telescopes and microscopes.
Pierre Stowe
2017-11-11 09:12:26 UTC
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EMR goes from the very, very long radio waves to the very short gamma
rays. All are both Photons and wave packets. Get your head around
that.
Prove it. ZERO evidence. Back to drawing board.
Well radio, radar, and lasers work as expected. So do telescopes and microscopes.
How predictable, you are weak in Fluid Dynamics as well.
RLH
2017-11-11 09:22:55 UTC
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Post by Pierre Stowe
Post by RLH
Post by benj
Post by RLH
EMR goes from the very, very long radio waves to the very short gamma
rays. All are both Photons and wave packets. Get your head around
that.
Prove it. ZERO evidence. Back to drawing board.
Well radio, radar, and lasers work as expected. So do telescopes and microscopes.
How predictable, you are weak in Fluid Dynamics as well.
Fluid Dynamics? Well I suppose there must be some calculations that could be done about the few thin gas we have that we normally call a vacuum. Not sure that most of the existing work would stretch to that sort of dissipation.
Pierre Stowe
2017-11-11 09:33:07 UTC
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Post by Pierre Stowe
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Well radio, radar, and lasers work as expected. So do telescopes and microscopes.
How predictable, you are weak in Fluid Dynamics as well.
Fluid Dynamics? Well I suppose there must be some calculations that
could be done about the few thin gas we have that we normally call a
vacuum. Not sure that most of the existing work would stretch to that
sort of dissipation.
Dissipation? So you don't know the Heat/Diffusion partial differential
equation as governing into a model, as well. You need PARTICLES into your
model, meine kleine bitte katze. You can't do vacuum by particles. What
else you don't know in Physics?
RLH
2017-11-11 09:41:10 UTC
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Post by Pierre Stowe
Post by RLH
Post by Pierre Stowe
Post by RLH
Well radio, radar, and lasers work as expected. So do telescopes and microscopes.
How predictable, you are weak in Fluid Dynamics as well.
Fluid Dynamics? Well I suppose there must be some calculations that
could be done about the few thin gas we have that we normally call a
vacuum. Not sure that most of the existing work would stretch to that
sort of dissipation.
Dissipation? So you don't know the Heat/Diffusion partial differential
equation as governing into a model, as well. You need PARTICLES into your
model, meine kleine bitte katze. You can't do vacuum by particles. What
else you don't know in Physics?
Dissipation as in a dispersing gas cloud. Nowhere in the Universe does the hydrogen atom count get below about 1 atom per cubic meter. Give the distance that a light year covers than means a LOT of hydrogen atoms encountered star to star.

If you think about it, faster than light travel is impossible. See that white hot exhaust you are using to push the spacecraft forward? Think of it much like a plasma torch? Now look ahead. You have a similar plasma torch pointed at you.

It does not much matter if you hit a target with a particle travelling at the speed of light. It is just the same as hitting a stationary particle with a target moving at the speed of light instead.

Those damn "bugs on a windshield" problem again.
s***@gmail.com
2017-11-09 23:57:15 UTC
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§ 3. Fresnel





In Fresnel's paper, "Memorie su la Diffraction de la Lumiere" (1819), Fresnel describes diffraction using interfering light waves formed by the vibration of the elastic fluid (ether).


"21. If we call λ the length of a light-wave, that is to say, the distance between two points in the ether where vibrations of the same kind are occurring at the same time" (Fresnel, § 21).


"Admitting that light consists in vibrations of the ether similar to sound-waves, we can easily account for the inflection of rays of light at sensible distances from the diffraction body." (Fresnel, § 33).


"To understand how a single luminous particle may perform a large series of oscillations all of which are nearly equal, we have only to imagine that its density is much greater than that of the fluid in which it vibrates---and, indeed, this is only what has already been inferred from the uniformity of the motions of the planets through this same fluid which fills planetary space." (Fresnel, § 33).


"APPLICATIONS OF HUYGENS'S PRINCIPLE TO THE PHENOMENA OF DIFFRACTION


43. Having determined the resultant of any number of trains of light-waves. I shall now show how by the aid of these interference formulae and by the principle of Huygens alone it is possible to explain, and even to compute, all the phenomena of diffraction. This principle, which I consider as a rigorous deduction from the basal hypothesis, may be expressed thus: The vibrations at each point in the wave-front may be considered as the sum of the elementary motions which at any one instant are sent to that point from all parts of this same wave in any one of its pervious* positions, each of these parts acting independently the one of the other. It follows from the principle of the superposition of small motions that the vibrations produced at any point in an elastic fluid" (Fresnel, § 43).




Fresnel's diffraction mechanism is based on interfering light waves formed by the motion of Huygens' ether, composed of matter, but diffraction forms in vacuum that is void of matter.




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n***@gmail.com
2017-11-11 21:56:34 UTC
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Prove it. ZERO evidence. Back to drawing board.

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Prove What?
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-11 21:58:11 UTC
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Fresnel describes diffraction using spherical waves formed by the wave AMI (fig 7).


"In order to compute the total effect, I refer these partial resultants to the wave emitted by the point M on the straight line CP, and to another wave displaced a quarter of a wave-length with reference to the preceding. This is the process already employed (p. 101) in the general solution of the interference problem. We shall consider only a section of the wave made by the plane perpendicular to the edge of the screen, and shall indicate by dz an element, nn', of the primary wave, and by z its distance from the point M. These, as I have shown, suffice to determine the position and the relative intensities of the bright and dark bands." (Fresnel, § 53).


Fresnel's expanding spherical waves are produced from points along the wave AMI when the bottom of the wave AMI touches the diffraction object. Fresnel's expanding spherical waves propagate to the diffraction screen and interfere forming the diffraction pattern but the creation of spherical waves by the wave AMI is representing the wave front AMI as a light source that is arbitrarily generating spherical waves which violates energy conservation. Furthermore, Fresnel's interfering spherical waves that are used to represent the diffraction effect conflict with Huygens' propagation mechanism that spherical waves do not interfere.
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-11 22:16:23 UTC
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During the China dinner Mr. Ping gave Trump a present. A DVD and three photos starting Donald Trump as Dirk Diggler co-staring Aaralyn Barra, Alysa Gap and Trumps favorite the licious Juliana Grandi.
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-11 22:29:44 UTC
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Just kidding, but what happen to the 40% tariff on Chinese goods that Trump promised?
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-11 23:52:43 UTC
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Fresnel derives a diffraction intensity equation by summating the interfering light waves' amplitudes, at the diffraction screen, using a line integral (equ 1).


"Hence the intensity of the vibration at P resulting from all these small disturbances is




{ [ ʃ dz cos (π z2 (a + b) / abλ) ]2 + [ ʃ dz sin (π z2 (a + b) / abλ)]2 }1/2 "..................................1




(Fresnel, 53). Fresnel's derivation of the diffraction intensity equation is based on a line integral where dz is a segment of the wave AMI yet Fresnel uses the line integral to summate the interfering light waves' amplitudes at the diffraction screen point P (fig 7) but the point P on the diffraction screen where the interfering light waves' amplitudes are summated by the integral is not within the limits of Fresnel's line integral (equ 1). In addition, during the diffraction effect of light, the crests and nodes of Fresnel's propagating light waves propagate in the forward direction. At the diffraction screen point P, the propagating light waves' amplitudes would oscillate forming an average resultant amplitude of zero, as time increases, that would eliminate the diffraction pattern. Furthermore, Fresnel is using the interfering light waves' amplitudes, at a point P, on the diffraction screen to represent the intensity (energy) of the diffraction effect which depicts a light energy that is dependent on the wave amplitude which conflicts with Lenard's photoelectric effect that proves light is composed of particles that light energy is dependent on only the frequency.

The formation of the small rectangular aperture diffraction pattern (fig 8) is represented using wave interference but the destructive interference of the light waves' amplitudes (energy) used to form the dark fringes of the diffraction pattern represents the destruction of the intensity of light; furthermore, the destruction of the light waves' amplitudes (intensity) would result in a reduction in the total light intensity of the diffraction pattern since the destroyed light waves' amplitudes do not contribute to the total light intensity of the diffraction pattern. More than 80% of the small rectangular aperture diffraction pattern is composed of dark areas which would result in at least a 60% reduction in the total light intensity of the diffraction pattern yet experimentally, the total light intensity that enters a small rectangular aperture (dt = 1s) is equal to the total light intensity of the diffraction pattern.

Fresnel is using spherical waves formed along the wave AMI to derive the diffraction intensity equation. The interfering spherical waves' maximum amplitudes are dependent on the inverse of the distance. The intensity formed by the spherical waves is dependent on I = (U)2 where U is the equation of a spherical wave U = A cos(kr)/r. Using the distance r1 = .1 mm where the spherical waves' maximum amplitudes are formed near the wave AMI, and, the distance of r2 = 5 cm that represents the distance from the wave AMI to the diffraction screen. The maximum total intensity of light formed by the spherical waves just after leaving the wave AMI, using cos2(kr) = 1/2, is I = [A cos(kr)/r]2 = K/(.0001)2 = K(10-8), and, the total intensity at the diffraction screen is I = [A cos(kr)/r]2 = K/(.05)2 = K(2.5 x 10-3); consequently, the total intensity at the diffraction screen decrease by the factor of 40,000 using Fresnel's spherical wave interference mechanism.


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n***@gmail.com
2017-11-12 19:28:47 UTC
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§ 4. Oested Induction



In Oersted's paper, "Experiments on the Effects of a Current of Electricity on the Magnetic Needle" (1820), Oersted discovered the induction effect.



"The uniting wire may change its place, either towards the east or west, provided it continue parallel to the needle, without any other change of the effect than in respect to its quantity. Hence the effect cannot be ascribed to attraction ; for the same pole of the magnetic needle, which approaches the uniting wire, while placed on its east side, ought to recede from it when on the west side, if these declinations depended on attractions and repulsions. The uniting conductor may consist of several wires, or metallic ribbons, connected together. The nature of the metal does not alter the effect, but merely the quantity. Wires of platinum, gold, silver, brass, iron, ribbons of lead and tin,a mass of mercury, were employed with equal success. The conductor does not lose its effect, though interrupted by water, unless the interruption amounts to several inches in length." (Oersted. p. 274)


"6. About twenty-six feet of copper wire one twentieth of an inch in diameter were wound round a cylinder of wood as a helix, the different spires of which were prevented from touching by a thin interposed twine. This helix was covered with calico, and then a second wire applied in the same manner. In this way twelve helices were superposed, each containing an average length of wire of twenty-seven feet, and all in the same direction. The first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh of these helices were connected at their extremities end to end, so as to form one helix; the others were connected in a similar manner; and thus two principal helices were produced, closely interposed, having the same direction, not touching anywhere, and each containing one hundred and fifty-five feet in length of wire.

7. One of these helices was connected with a galvanometer, the other with a voltaic battery of ten pairs of plates four inches square, with double coppers and well charged; yet not the slightest sensible reflection of the galvanometer-needle could be observed." (Faraday, First Series).


Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted (1820) discovered induction in an experiment where a needle is deflected by a current wire (Oersted, p. 274) that is represented with Oersted's law which depicts only an external magnetic field. Ampere (1926) observed a force between two current wires represented with only a external magnetic field. Lenz was the first to describe the mutual induction of two wire helix. Lenz's induction paper that was initially rejected for publication in 1830 and was later published in 1835 with the addition of the magnetic flux. Henry used the induction coil to form an LRC circuit and solenoid that resulted in the invention of the door bell and its distance cousin the telegraph. The units of an induction coil is named a Henry (H). Faraday (1831) describes the mutual induction effect using Lenz's wire helix induction effect that induction current is formed by an internal electric current.
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-12 23:08:28 UTC
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§ 5. Maxwell



In Maxwell's paper, "Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" (1864), Maxwell states the ether, composed of matter, exists within Geissler's glass vacuum tube.


"It may be filled with any kind of matter, or we may endeavour to render it empty of all gross matter, as in the case of Geissler’s tubes and other so called vacua. There is always, however, enough of matter left to receive and transmit the undulations of light and heat, and it is because the transmission of these radiations is not greatly altered when transparent bodies of measurable density are substituted for the so-called vacuum, that we are obliged to admit that the undulations are those of an ethereal substance, and not of the gross matter, the presence of which merely modifies in some way the motion of the ether." (Maxwell, Intro).

Maxwell cannot logically explain how the ether, composed of matter, exists in the glass vacuum tube.


The wave theory of light is based on light waves formed by the vibration of Huygens' ether, composed of matter, but the wave effects of light form in vacuum that is void of matter which contradicts Huygens' wave theory of light; consequently, Maxwell's states the ether exists in vacuum yet vacuum is void of matter.
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-12 23:20:21 UTC
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The LIGO detected stellar electromagnetic gravity waves formed by a black hole. The electromagnetic gravitational waves based on Einstein's general relativity are detected using Michelson's interferometer and a laser.



"The prediction of gravitational waves (GWs), oscillations in the space–time metric that propagate at the speed of light, is one of the most profound differences between Einstein's general theory of relativity" (LIGO Collaboration, § 2).



"The essence of general relativity is that mass and energy produce a curvature of four-dimensional space-time, and that matter moves in response to this curvature. The Einstein field equations prescribe the interaction between mass and space-time curvature, much as Maxwell's equations prescribe the relationship between electric charge and electromagnetic fields. Just as electromagnetic waves are time dependent vacuum solutions to Maxwell's equations, gravitational waves are time dependent vacuum solutions to the field equations." (LIGO Collaboration, § 2).



"As illustrated in figure 1, the oscillating quadrupolar strain pattern of a GW is well matched by a Michelson interferometer, which makes a very sensitive comparison of the lengths of its two orthogonal arms." (LIGO Collaboration, § 3).



"Figure 1 illustrates the basic concept of how a Michelson interferometer is used to measure a GW strain. The challenge is to make the instrument sufficiently sensitive: at the targeted strain sensitivity of 10-21, the resulting arm length change is only ~10-18 m, a thousand times smaller than the diameter of a proton." (LIGO Collaboration, § 4).



The 10-18 meters variation of the length of the armature of Michelson's laser LIGO interferometer produced by the stellar gravity waves results in the signal of the gravity waves but the LIGO gravity waves represent an electromagnetic wave yet Michelson's interferometer is not a radio attenna. Also, the LIGO gravity wave mechanism is based the ability to detect the change in the interferometer's armature length of 10-18 meters yet the diameter of the atoms that compose the surface of the reflection mirror is 10-10 meters.
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-14 00:01:29 UTC
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___________________________________________________________





Maxwell is assuming that since light and the radio induction effect propagate at the same velocity that light has an electromagnetic field structure.

"This velocity is so nearly that of light, that it seems we have strong reason to conclude that light itself (including radiant heat, and other radiations if any) is an electromagnetic disturbance in the form of waves propagated through the electromagnetic field according to electromagnetic laws." (Maxwell, Intro).

"Maxwell jumped to a conclusion. He concluded that light is one form of electromagnetic wave. He had no real evidence for this, but he felt that the coincidence of that tremendous speed was not a coincidence at all." (Bova, p. 159).


Maxwell justifies the electromagnetic theory of light using the assumption that since radio waves and light propagate at the same velocity that light has an electromagnetic field structure but the velocity of light does not change the fact that Maxwell's theory is based on Faraday's induction effect that is not luminous. In addition, the velocity of light has not been accurately measured. Roemer did not measure or calculate the velocity of light in his 1667 paper. Huygens (1690) attempts to measure the velocity of light using the earth's orbital diameter KL (fig 23) and a 22 minute time delay of Io's period but after the earth propagates to the position L, the dark side of the earth (night) is not facing Jupiter. Bradley's (1729) stellar aberration is used to calculate the velocity of light but the change in the position of Bradley's star is caused by the earth's daily and yearly motions since the stars of the stellar universe are stationary which is depicted by the rotational shift of all the stars of the stellar universe that rotation shifts are centered around the North Star. Fizeau (1848) attempts to measure the velocity of light uses a cogwheel but a single light pulse cannot produce an intensity after propagating the distance of 16 km; consequently, Foucault (1850) replaced Fizeau's cogwheel with a rotating mirror but Foucault's light pulse also forms the same intensity problem as Fizeau's experiment; consequently, Fabry-Perot (1899) uses a glass wedge interference effect to obtain a wavelength that is used in a wave equation (λf = c) to calculate the velocity of light but the glass wedge interference effect is formed by an ether, composed of matter, that does not physically exist (vacuum). Michelson's (1826) also attempts to calculate the velocity of light using an interference effect but Michelson's interferometer is testing for the existence of the ether that results was negative yet the ether is part of the detection apparatus.
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-14 02:16:03 UTC
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"I did not and I'm not aware of anyone else that did, and I don't believe it happened," Sessions said under questioning, again from Franken.

________________________________________________________________________



But that narrative has been challenged by a pair of recent events, most notably a guilty plea from George Papadopoulos, who last month admitted in court to lying to the FBI about his own foreign contacts. He was part of a foreign policy council that Sessions chaired, and the two are among the men in a March 2016 photograph that Trump posted on social media. Charging documents in that case indicate that Papadopoulos told the council "that he had connections that could help arrange a meeting between then-candidate Trump" and Russian President Vladimir Putin. Democratic members of the House Judiciary Committee advised Sessions in a letter last week that they intended to press him on what they said were "inconsistencies" between the attorney general's past statements and the new revelations.

"If, as recent reports suggest, you rejected Mr. Papadopoulos's suggestion that President Trump meet with Vladimir Putin at that March 31 meeting — a fact you appear to have remembered only after Mr. Papadopoulos's account was made public — it seems likely that you were 'aware' of communications between the Russian government and surrogates of the Trump campaign," the letter states.
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-14 02:40:50 UTC
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LIGO to NASA--we have a problem.
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-14 02:42:45 UTC
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Maxwell's equations are derived using Faraday's induction effect.



"GENERAL EQUATIONS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD." (Maxwell, Part III).



"the total electromagnetic momentum of the circuit, or the number of lines of magnetic force which pass through it, the variations of which measure the total electromotive force in the circuit. This electromagnetic momentum is the same thing to which Professor Faraday has applied the name of the Electrotonic State. If the circuit be the boundary of the elementary area dydz." (Maxwell, Part III).
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-14 20:28:51 UTC
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"Equations of Magnetic Force.





uα = dH/dy - dG/dz............................................2




uβ = dF/dz - dH/dx.............................................3




uλ = dG/dx - dF/dy.............................................4




Equations of Currents...




dλ/dy - dβ/dz = 4πp'............................................5




dα/dz - dλ/dx = 4πq'............................................6




dβ/dx - dα/dy = 4πr'............................................7





We may call these the Equations of Currents." (Maxwell, Part III).





Maxwell's equations are derived using Faraday's induction effect produced by an external magnetic flux (α, β, λ) and internal conduction wire electric current (F, G, H).







______________________________________
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-14 22:42:11 UTC
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RE:LIGO

Just because the equations (Maxwell's equations) have similar forms DOES NOT require that they are the same phenomenon. That both an electric field and a gravitational field vary as inverse square does not mean they are the same field. The field strength of audio waves for example also vary by the inverse square of the distance................by Pointed Ears.

________________________________________________________________


HA. HA. HA. HA. HA. HA.HA. HA. HA.HA. HA. HA.HA. HA. HA. HA. HA. HA.HA. HA. HA.HA. HA. HA.HA. HA. HA. HA. HA. HA.HA. HA. HA.HA. HA. HA.HA. HA. HA. HA. HA. HA.HA. HA. HA.HA. HA. HA.HA. HA. HA. HA. HA. HA.HA. HA. HA.HA. HA. HA. HE HE
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-14 22:46:13 UTC
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Physics is not what it use to be! But it's extremely amusing at that.
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-14 23:04:24 UTC
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On Oct. 18, 2017 Sessions told the Senate Judiciary Committee that he had no knowledge of any contacts between Trump campaign advisers and Russians with ties to the Kremlin..


“I did not, and I’m not aware of anyone else that did,”.


“I don’t believe that happened.”.


Sessions told the House panel Tuesday that he now recalls the meeting with Papadopoulos..


"I believe I made clear to him (Papadopoulos) that he should not represent the campaign to Russians or anyone else.".


"I pushed back against his (Papadopoulos) suggestion that I thought may have been improper," he said..


In Sessions' January confirmation hearing he did not have any contact with Russian officials yet after news reports emerged that he had met with Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak Sessions later admitted to the Senate Judiciary Committee that he had a meeting in his Senate office with Kislyak last year. Sessions said he did not intentionally mislead the Senate panel when he said he wasn't aware of any contact between Trump campaign advisers and Russian officials since he didn't recall his conversations with Papadopoulos and Page..
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-15 20:29:38 UTC
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Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light is based on Maxwell's equations that are derived using Faraday induction effect.


"ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT" (Maxwell, Part VI).


"(93) If we combine the equations of Magnetic Force (B) with those of Electric Force (B) with those of Electric Current, and put for brevity" (Maxwell, Part VI).
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-16 19:53:29 UTC
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Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light is based on Maxwell's equations that are derived using Faraday induction effect.


"ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT" (Maxwell, Part VI).


"(93) If we combine the equations of Magnetic Force (B) with those of Electric Force (B) with those of Electric Current, and put for brevity" (Maxwell, Part VI).



Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light based on Faraday's induction effect was introduced since radio waves form interference in vacuum which is used to justify the wave theory of light that vacuum contradicts. Maxwell uses the velocity of light to structurally unify light with induction but the velocity of light does not change the fact that Faraday's induction effect is not luminous. Poynting (1884) supports Maxwell's theory by deriving an electromagnetic energy equation of light but Poynting's current wire is not luminous, and, Hertz (1887) attempts to structurally unite light with induction using a spark gap that emits light and radio waves but Hertz's spark gap likewise emits electrons yet Faraday's induction effect is also not an ionization effect. The production of light is always accompanied by the emission of electrons yet induction is not an ionization effect. In addition, a radio wave's intensity is dependent on I = A cos(kr)/r2 ; whereas, the dispersion rate of a laser beam is less than the inverse of the square of the distance. After a radio wave propagates the distance of 50,000 miles (r = 8 x 107 m) a radio signal's intensity would diminish by a factor of 10-14. A 20 kW radio signal's intensity produced on the surface of the earth would be less than the intensity of a cell phone after propagating a distance of 50,000 miles and after the radio signal propagates the distance of 100,000 miles, the radio signal's intensity would not be detectable. The NASA Apollo 11 mission is used to justify the range of a radio signal but the moon is 235,000 miles from the earth. Furthermore, a gold leaf within a glass vacuum jar that is incident to a light beam produces a motion of the gold leaf yet radio waves do not produce a motion of the gold leaf. Plus, Maxwell's electromagnetic field produces an energy divergence since a finite volume that contains an electromagnetic field represents an infinite number of positions when an infinite number of positions is represented with electromagnetic field vectors (energy) an infinite energy is formed. Huygens' ether particles limit the number of positions forming a finite energy but Huygens' ether does not physically exist (vacuum).


...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................


"Maxwell's electrodynamics proceeds in the same unusual way already analyzed in studying his electrostatics. Under the influence of hypotheses which remain vague and undefined in his mind, Maxwell sketches a theory which he never completes, he does not even bother to remove contradictions from it; then he starts changing this theory, he imposes on it essential modifications which he does not notify to his reader; the latter tries in vain to fix the fugitive and intangible thought of the author; just when he thinks he has got it, even the parts of the doctrine dealing with the best studied phenomena are seen to vanish. And yet this strange and disconcerting method led Maxwell to the electromagnetic theory of light!" (Duhem, 1902).


"Laudan recalls, with considerable rhetorical effect, James Clerk Maxwell's remark that "the aether was better confirmed than any other theoretical entity in natural philosophy" (Laudan 1984 114; the formulation is Laudan's not Maxwell's). Although we can understand his claim, based as it was on the multiplicity of phenomena to which schemata appealing to wave propagation had been successfully applied, Maxwell was wrong. The entire confirmation of the existence of the ether rested on a series of paths, each sharing a common link. The success of the optical and electromagnetic schemata, employing the mathematical account of wave propagation begun by Fresnel and extended by his successors (including, or course, Maxwell), gave scientists good reason for believing that electromagnetic waves were propagated according to Maxwell's equations. From that conclusion they could derive the existence of the ether---but only supposing in every case that wave propagation requires a medium. Thus the confirmation of the existence of the ether was no better than the evidence for that supposition." (Kitcher, p. 149).


"More artificial theories have been tried out, assuming that the real truth lies somewhere between these two limiting cases: that the ether is only partially carried by the moving bodies. But they all failed! Every attempt to explain the electromagnetic phenomena in moving CS with the help of the motion of the ether, motion through the ether, or both these motions, proved unsuccessful. Thus arose one of the most dramatic situations in the history of science. All assumptions concerning ether led nowhere! The experimental verdict was always negative." (Weaver, p. 145).



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n***@gmail.com
2017-11-17 21:30:22 UTC
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_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________







Maxwell represents polarization using transverse waves formed by the motion of the elastic medium (ether).


"(91) At the commencement of this paper we made use of the optical hypothesis of an elastic medium through which the vibrations of light are propagated" (Maxwell, Part VI).
"the disturbance at any point is transverse to the direction of propagation, and such waves may have all the properties of polarized light." (Maxwell, Part VI).



A transverse wave cannot form within a volume since a disturbance within a volume produces a longitudinal wave that structure oscillates parallel to the direction of propagation; whereas, a transverse wave's structure oscillates perpendicular to the direction of motion; consequently, after propagating a far distance an electromagnetic longitudinal wave cannot become a transverse (plane) wave. Maxwell's equations represent an electromagnetic field within a volume that depicts the formation of a electromagnetic longitudinal wave. Example, using a water wave analogy, a disturbance at the bottom of the ocean forms a longitudinal water wave that propagates to the ocean's surface. At the surface of the ocean, the longitudinal wave's kinetic energy vibrates the ocean surface's water molecules producing a transverse water wave on the surface of the ocean; consequently, a transverse light wave cannot form in vacuum since the formation of a transverse wave requires a surface interface that constitute a medium composed of matter. In string theory, an oscillating string is used to justify Maxwell's electromagnetic transverse wave structure of light but an oscillating string is composed of matter which structurally conflicts with light that is composed of massless light particles.
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-18 20:35:55 UTC
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Maxwell describes the vibration of the electric fluid (ether) that forms transverse light waves.


"(100) The equations of the electromagnetic field, deduced from purely experimental evidence, show that transversal vibrations only can be propagated. If we were to go beyond our experimental knowledge and to assign a definite density to a substance which we should call the electric fluid, and select either vitreous or resinous electricity as the representative of that fluid, then we might have normal vibrations propagated with a velocity depending on this density. We have, however, no evidence as to the density of electricity, as we do not even know whether to consider vitreous electricity as a substance or as the absence of a substance. Hence electromagnetic science leads to exactly the same conclusions as optical science with respect to the direction of the disturbances which can be propagated through the field; both affirm the propagation of transverse vibrations, and both give the same velocity of propagation. On the other hand, both sciences are at a loss when called on to affirm or deny the existence of normal vibrations." (Maxwell, Part VI).
Maxwell is describing an electric fluid that motion forms transverse light waves but Maxwell's electric field originate from Faraday's induction effect that electric current only forms within the conduction wire. Also, an electric fluid represents a fluid that is composed of matter matter (liquid) yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter. Also, a propagating electric field conflicts with Huygens' ether that remains stationary after the light wave propagates through the ether.
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Maxwell derives a wave propagation equation of light using Maxwell's equations.



"(93) If we combine the equations of Magnetic Force (B) with those of Electric Currents (C)...........


Absolute Values of the Electromotive and Magnetic Forces called into play in the Propagation of Light.


(108) If the equation of propagation of light is





F = A cos [(2π/λ)(z - Vt)]"...................................................8





(Maxwell, Part VI). Maxwell's propagation equation of light is derived using Maxwell's equations (equ 2-7) but Maxwell's electric current (F, G, H) only forms within the conduction wire of Faraday's induction effect yet the electric current (F) of equation 8 is being used to represent the structure a propagating electric wave outside the conduction wire.


_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________





§ 6. Michelson



In Michelson's paper, "The Relative Motion of the Earth and the Lumiferous Ether" (1881), Michelson tests for Fresnel's stationary ether composed of matter using an interferometer.


"The undulatory theory of light assumes the existence of a medium called the ether, whose vibrations produce the phenomena of heat and light, and which is supposed to fill all space. According to Fresnel, the ether, which is enclosed in optical media, partakes of the motion of these media, to an extent depending on their indices of refraction. For air, this motion would be but a small fraction of that of the air itself and will be neglected." (Michelson, p. 120).


"Assuming then that the ether is at rest, the earth moving through it, the time required for light to pass from one point to another on the earth's surface, would depend on the direction in which it travels." (Michelson, p. 120).

"The interpretation of these results is that there is no displacement of the interference bands. The result of the hypothesis of a stationary ether is thus shown to be incorrect, and the necessary conclusion follows that the hypothesis is erroneous." (Michelson, p. 128).

According to Michelson, a stationary ether, composed of matter, exists in all of stellar space. At the surface of the earth, the earth's daily and yearly motions interaction with Michelson's stationary celestial ether forms an ether wind which Michelson's experiment is testing. An arc lamp and a beam splitter are used to form two light rays. One light ray propagates in the direction parallel to the ether wind and the second light ray propagates perpendicular to the ether wind. Initially only the parallel light ray is affected by the ether wind since the parallel light ray is propagating in the direction of the ether wind which would increase the velocity of the parallel light ray. The perpendicular light ray is unaffected by the ether wind since the perpendicular light ray is propagating perpendicular to the direction of the ether wind. Both the parallel and perpendicular light rays are combined to form an interference effect of Michelson's interferometer. Rotating Michelson's experimental apparatus, at certain angles, both light rays velocities would be affected by the ether wind that would result in the shift of the interference effect and verify the existence of the ether but the result was negative. Lorentz reverses the negative result of Michelson's experiment to justify the existence of Fresnel's ether, composed of matter, but there are numerous problems regarding Michelson's experiment. First, according to Michelson, initially the parallel light ray's velocity is increased by propagating in the direction of the ether wind but after the parallel light ray propagates in the opposite direction, the parallel light ray's velocity decreases which cancels the test of the ether wind. Michelson-Morley uses numerous reflections to conceal the cancellation problem but the net result of the all the reflections of Michelson-Morley experiment would also cancel the test of the ether wind. In addition, Michelson experiment is based on Fresnel's diffraction effect that interfering light waves produce the diffraction pattern projected on a diffraction screen yet Michelson's interference effect is viewed using a small telescope pointed at the beam splitter since the two light rays of Michelson's experiment cannot produce a diffraction pattern projected on a screen. Example, when two coherent laser beam's intensities are combined, no interference effect is formed on a diffraction screen since the formation of wave interference requires an ether, composed of matter, that does not physically exist (vacuum). Plus, Michelson ether experiment is testing for the existence of the ether but is using the ether as part of the detection apparatus which is in violation of scientific method. Furthermore, at the surface of the earth, Huygens-Fresnel ether is stationary but Michelson's theory is based on a stationary stellar ether which conflicts with Fresnel's ether that is stationary at the surface of the earth. The ether cannot be stationary both in all of stellar space as depicted by Michelson and likewise stationary, at the surface of the earth, at the same time, because of the earth's daily and yearly motions. Also, Michelson's experiment is based on a ether wind that has a constant magnitude, at the surface of the earth since a non-constant ether wind would result in a positive result of Michelson's experiment yet the ether wind, formed by the earth's daily and yearly rotational motions, at the surface of the earth, is not constant. At a point on the surface of the earth, at 6:00 pm, the magnitude of the earth's tangential velocity vector that forms the ether wind is 462 m/s (fig 7), and, increases to 5,077 m/s at 7:00 pm. At midnight, the earth's tangential velocity vector is 30,462 m/s; consequently, the magnitude of the ether wind increases from 462 m/s to 30,462 m/s (6:00 pm - 12:00 am) yet Michelson's experiment is based on a constant magnitude of the ether wind.


Time velocity

___________________________


6:00 pm 462 m/s


7:00 pm 5,077 m/s


8:00 pm 10,154 m/s


9:00 pm 15,231 m/s


10:00 pm 20,308 m/s


11:00 pm 25,385 m/s


12:00 am 30,462 m/s

........................................................





1:00 am 25,385 m/s


2:00 am 20,308 m/s


3:00 am 15,231 m/s


4:00 am 10,154 m/s


5:00 am 5,077 m/s


6:00 am 462 m/s


.............................................................




7:00 am 5,308 m/s


8:00 am 10,154 m/s


9:00 am 15,000 m/s


10:00 am 19,846 m/s


11:00 am 24,692 m/s


12:00 pm 29,538 m/s


..............................................................



1:00 pm 24,692 m/s


2:00 pm 19,846 m/s


3:00 pm 15,000 m/s


4:00 pm 10,154 m/s


5:00 pm 5,308 m/s


6:00 pm 462 m/s




Michelson's experiment is unnecessary since light propagating in vacuum proves Fresnel's ether, composed of matter, does not physically exist.

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"Michelson did not conclude that the Earth travels at zero speed through the aether; he concluded, rather, that despite the care and precautions taken the device was too susceptible to extraneous facts, such as temperature and vibration, and was not suitable for measuring that speed. His exploration filed, he thought, to yield the interesting data he had hoped for. He could have sought an explanation for his 'null' outcome other than the inadequacy of his interferometer. If he had had sufficient confidence in the non-existence of the effect he tried to measure, he might have looked for a theoretical explanation. As it was, within a few years Albert Einstein had developed a theory from which it followed that the looked-for effect does not exist. Not that his theory ended the exploration. For perhaps, despite Einstein's theory, Michelson's effect does exist and it really was the inadequacies of his device which prevented him from detecting it. There have been enough surprise in the history of physics to make us cautious in ruling out the possibility of such a result (Collins and Pinch 1993: ch 2)."(Gower, p. 241).

"More artificial theories have been tried out, assuming that the real truth lies somewhere between these two limiting cases: that the ether is only partially carried by the moving bodies. But they all failed! Every attempt to explain the electromagnetic phenomena in moving CS with the help of the motion of the ether, motion through the ether, or both these motions, proved unsuccessful. Thus arose one of the most dramatic situations in the history of science. All assumptions concerning ether led nowhere! The experimental verdict was always negative." (Weaver, p. 145).


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2017-11-19 21:10:18 UTC
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§ 7. Kirchhoff



Fresnel's diffraction mechanism is based on spherical waves produced by points along the wave AMI. The expanding spherical waves form retrogressive waves that is not experimentally observed which contradicts the wave theory of light; consequently, Kirchhoff is mathematically eliminating the structure of the retrogressive wave.


"10-4. Defects of Fresnel's Theory...


3. To these difficulties regarding the nature of the secondary sources there is added the difficulty of explaining the existence of the obliquity factor and, in particular, why the sources do not radiate backwards....In addition, one can easily "forget" the backwave." (Longhurst, p. 188).



Fresnel's diffraction mechanism of light established the wave theory of light but Fresnel's spherical waves form a retrogressive wave that is not experimentally observed which contradicts Fresnel's diffraction mechanism.


...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................



In Kirchhoff's formulation of Huygens' Principle (1883), Kirchhoff eliminates the retrogressive wave, using Green's theorem,


"8.3 Kirchhoff's diffraction theory


8.3.1 The integral theorem of Kirchhoff


The basic idea of the Huygens-Fresnel theory is that the light disturbance at a point P arises from the superposition of secondary waves that proceed from a surface situated between this point and the light source. This idea was put on a sounder mathematical basis by Kirchhoff†....................If U' is any other function which satisfies the same continuity requirements as U, we have by Green's theorem" (Born and Wolf, p. 417-418).





"∭(Ψ2 ∇2 Ψ1 - Ψ1 ∇2Ψ2) dV = ∬ (Ψ2 [dΨ1/dn] - Ψ1 [dΨ2/dn]) dS" ..............................9





(Longhurst, p. 190). Green's theorem is equating a volume integral with a surface integral in the same equation (equ 9) which is mathematically invalid and proves Kirchhoff's elimination of the retrogressive wave is physically and mathematically inefficacious.



.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................



Longhurst uses equation 9 to derive an obliquity factor that mathematically eliminates the retrogressive wave formed by a spherical wave.


"10-7. Application to Spherical Waves


Equation (10-15) was derived for a surface S which enclosed the point P but not the source (since it was assumed in applying Green's theorem that ψ remains finite throughout the volume of integration). It can be shown that the same result follows if S encloses the source but not the point P. Thus in the case of a single point source the closed surface S may be taken as a spherical wavefront." (Longhurst, p. 192).


"1. The integrand includes an obliquity factor ½(1 + cos θ) which is unity in the forward direction (θ = 0) and zero in the reverse direction (θ = π). The amplitude factor a/λ is also present as was seen to be necessary." (Longhurst, p. 193).



Longhurst is justifying Kirchhoff's elimination of the retrogressive wave using Green's theorem but the uniform and radial structure of a spherical wave forms a retrogressive wave that cannot be mathematically eliminate which proves Longhurst's elimination of the retrogressive wave is invalid.



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2017-11-20 20:51:55 UTC
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§ 8. Poynting




In Poynting's paper, "On the Transfer of Energy in the Electromagnetic Field" (1884), Poynting's current wire forms electric and magnetic fields in the free space that surrounds a current wire (fig 9) that is used to derive an electromagnetic energy equation of light.


"Applications of the Law of Transfer of Energy.


(1) A straight wire conveying a current.


In this case very near the wire, and within it, the lines of magnetic force are circles round the axis of the wire. The lines of electric force are along the wire, if we take it as proved that the flow across equal areas of the cross section is the same at all parts of the section. If AB, fig. 1, represents the wire, and the current is from A to B, then a tangent plane to the surface at any point contains the directions of both the electromotive and magnetic intensities (we shall write E.M.I. and M.I. for these respectively in what follows), and energy is therefore flowing in perpendicularly through the surface, that is, along the radius towards the axis." (Poynting, p. 350).


Poynting's electric and magnetic fields (E.M.I and M.I) conflicts with Ampere's law that current wire only forms a magnetic field in the open space surrounding the current wire (Ampere, fig 14, Plate 2) (fig 10).





.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................




Poynting uses the external electric and magnetic fields formed by a current wire in an electromagnetic energy equation of light.


"(7) The electromagnetic theory of light.


The velocity of plane waves of polarized light on the electromagnetic theory may be deduced fromthe consideration of the flow of energy.......If E the E.M.I and B the M.I within the volume, supposed so small that the energy within is




KE2 / 8π + uB2 / 8π..................................................................10




(Poynting, p. 358). Poynting's electric E and magnetic B fields originate from a current wire that is not luminous which is experimental proof Poynting's electromagnetic energy equation of light (equ 10) cannot be used to represent the energy of light.
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2017-11-21 21:05:32 UTC
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§ 9. Lorentz





In Lorentz's paper "Simplified Theory of Electrical and Optical Phenomena in Moving Systems" (1899), Lorentz is justifying Maxwell's theory and depicting an electromagnetic aether using Maxwell's equations,





"I applied to the aether the ordinary electromagnetic equations," (Lorentz, § 1).





"dBz/dy - dBy/dz = 4πq(px + vx) + 4π(d/dt - px d/dx) Ex..............................................11



dBx/dz - dBz/dx = 4πpqvy + 4π(d/dt - px d/dx) Ey......................................................12



dBy/dx - dBx/dy = 4πqvz + 4π(d/dt - px d/dx) Ez........................................................13


..............................................................................................................



4πV2(dEz /dy - dEy/dz) = - (d/dt - px d/dx) Bx..............................................................14



4πV2(dEx/dz - dEz /dx) = - (d/dt - px d/dx) By..............................................................15



4πV2(dEy/dx - dEx/dy) = - (d/dt - px d/dx) Bx...............................................................16




...In most applications p would be the velocity of the earth in its yearly motion." (Lorentz, § 3).





x' = [V/(V2 - px2)1/2]x,....................................................................................................17


y' = y,...........................................................................................................................18


z' = z,...........................................................................................................................19


t' = t - x px /(V2 - px2).....................................................................................................20



Lorentz is justifying Maxwell's theory by altering the coordinate system of Maxwell's equations but manipulating the dimensions of Maxwell's equations does not change the fact that Maxwell's equations are derived using Faraday's induction effect that is not luminous, nor is induction an ionization or particle effect. Furthermore, Maxwell's electromagnetic field cannot be used to represent Huygens-Fresnel ether since Maxwell's propagating electromagnetic field conflicts with Huygens' ether that remains stationary after the light wave propagates through the ether.


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2017-11-22 20:01:19 UTC
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§ 2. Huygens




In Huygens' paper, "Treatise on Light" (1690), Huygens describes Roemer's observation of the period of Io that produces a 10 minute time delay.
"But that which I employed only as a hypothesis, has recently received great seemingness as an established truth by the ingenious proof of Mr. Römer which I am going here to relate, expecting him himself to give all that is needed for its confirmation. It is founded as is the preceding argument upon celestial observations, and proves not only that Light takes time for its passage, but also demonstrates how much time it takes, and that its velocity is even at least six times greater than that which I have just stated. For this he makes use of the Eclipses suffered by the little planets which revolve around Jupiter, and which often enter his shadow: and see what is his reasoning." (Huygens, p. 8-9).
"Hence, if light would travel the diameter of the Earth in one second, it would travel each interval FG and KL in 3 1/2 minutes. This should lead to a deviation of about half an hour between two revolutions of this satellite observed in FG and KL respectively. On the other hand, nothing of such a substantial difference has been found." (Roemer, p. 276).
"For instance, 40 revolutions observed from the side F should be substantially shorter that 40 other revolutions, observed from the opposite side (this effect is independent of any position in the Zodiac where Jupiter would be located), and this is in a ratio of 22 to the interval HE, which is twice the distance from us to the Sun.The necessity of the new equation of delayed light was established by all the observations obtained at the Royal Academy and the Observatory during the past 8 years. This was verified later, by the appearance of the first satellite from the shadow of Jupiter, observed in the evening 5h35m45s on November 9 of this year, in Paris, that occurred 10 minutes later than it was expected on the basis of the observations produced in August, when the Earth was much closer to Jupiter; this was predicted by monsieur Rømer, at the Academy in the beginning of September ." (Roemer, p. 277-8).
Roemer did not measure or calculate the velocity of light in his three page paper. Roemer describes the time delay of the period of Io, a moon of Jupiter, and the earth's orbital diameter HE. Roemer states that after a ten month time interval between November 9 and the beginning of September a 10 minute time delay of Io's period was recorded that Roemer attributed to the velocity of light.
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Huygens calculates the velocity of light using the earth's orbital diameter KL and a 22 minute time delay of the period of Io (fig 2).
"If one considers the vast size of the diameter KL, which according to me is some 24 thousand diameters of the Earth, one will acknowledge the extreme velocity of Light. For, supposing that KL is no more than 22 thousand of these diameters, it appears that being traversed in 22 minutes this makes the speed a thousand diameters in one minute, that is 16-2/3 diameters in one second or in one beat of the pulse, which makes more than 11 hundred times a hundred thousand toises; since the diameter of the Earth contains 2,865 leagues, reckoned at 25 to the degree, and each each league is 2,282 Toises, according to the exact measurement which Mr. Picard made by order of the King in 1669. But Sound, as I have said above, only travels 180 toises in the same time of one second: hence the velocity of Light is more than six hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. This, however, is quite another thing from being instantaneous, since there is all the difference between a finite thing and an infinite. Now the successive movement of Light being confirmed in this way, it follows, as I have said, that it spreads by spherical waves, like the movement of Sound." (Huygens, p. 10-11).
Huygens uses the earth's orbital diameter KL and a 22 minute time delay of the period of Io to calculate the velocity of light; Huygens' calculation is based on a 22 minute time delay of Io's period that is produce by the finite magnitude of the velocity of light and the earth's orbital diameter KL but after the earth propagates to the position L, Huygens cannot view Io since at position L, the dark side of the earth (night) is not facing Jupiter. Example, Jupiter is in opposition on May 9, 2018 and on November 9, 2018 after the earth propagates the distance of the earth's orbital diameter in a six month time period Jupiter does not appear in the night sky (http://www.seasky.org/astronomy/astronomy-calendar-2018.html.).

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



Huygens' describes light using spherical waves based on a sound wave analogy.


"We know that by means of the air, which is an invisible and impalpable body, Sound spreads around the spot where it has been produced, by a movement which is passed on successively from one part of the air to another; and that the spreading of this movement, taking place equally rapidly on all sides, ought to form spherical surfaces ever enlarging and which strike our ears. Now there is no doubt at all that light also comes from the luminous body to our eyes by some movement impressed on the matter which is between the two; since, as we have already seen, it cannot be by the transport of a body which passes from one to the other. If, in addition, light takes time for its passage—which we are now going to examine—it will follow that this movement, impressed on the intervening matter, is successive; and consequently it spreads, as Sound does, by spherical surfaces and waves" (Huygens, p. 5).

"It is true that we are here supposing a strange velocity that would be a hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. For Sound, according to what I have observed, travels about 180 Toises in the time of one Second, or in about one beat of the pulse. But this supposition ought not to seem to be an impossibility; since it is not a question of the transport of a body with so great a speed, but of a successive movement which is passed on from some bodies to others. I have then made no difficulty, in meditating on these things, in supposing that the emanation of light is accomplished with time, seeing that in this way all its phenomena can be explained, and that in following the contrary opinion everything is incomprehensible. For it has always seemed tome that even Mr. Des Cartes, whose aim has been to treat all the subjects of Physics intelligibly, and who assuredly has succeeded in this better than any one before him, has said nothing that is not full of difficulties, or even inconceivable, in dealing with Light and its properties." (Huygens, p. 7).


"the velocity of Light is more than six hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. This, however, is quite another thing from being instantaneous, since there is all the difference between a finite thing and an infinite. Now the successive movement of Light being confirmed in this way, it follows, as I have said, that it spreads by spherical waves, like the movement of Sound." (Huygens, p. 10).

Huygens' optical spherical waves are formed by the motion of an ether composed of matter yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which contradicts the existence of Huygens' ether and spherical waves. A wave is a mechanical entity that is formed by the motion of a medium, composed of matter (solid, liquid or gas). Example, air is the medium that forms sound waves which are produced by the exchange of the kinetic energies of interacting air molecules but sound cannot propagate in vacuum since vacuum is void of air molecules required in forming sound waves yet Huygens is using an acoustical analogy to represent the propagation of light. One of the most important physical characteristic of sound is not applicable to light since light propagates in vacuum that is void of air that is required in forming sound yet Huygens is using an acoustical analogy to describe the propagation of light.


______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




Huygens is describing the formation of light waves produced by the motion of an ether, composed of matter.


"Now if one examines what this matter may be in which the movement coming from the luminous body is propagated, which I call Ethereal matter" (Huygens, p. 11).


"But the extreme velocity of Light, and other properties which it has, cannot admit of such a propagation of motion, and I am about to show here the way in which I conceive it must occur. For this, it is needful to explain the property which hard bodies must possess to transmit movement from one to another." (Huygens, p. 13).


"But it is still certain that this progression of motion is not instantaneous, but successive, and therefore must take time. For if the movement, or the disposition to movement, if you will have it so, did not pass successively through all these spheres, they would all acquire the movement at the same time, and hence would all advance together; which does not happen. For the last one leaves the whole row and acquires the speed of the one which was pushed. Moreover there are experiments which demonstrate that all the bodies which we reckon of the hardest kind, such as quenched steel, glass, and agate, act as springs and bend somehow, not only when extended as rods but also when they are in the form of spheres or of other shapes." (Huygens, p. 13).


"Now in applying this kind of movement to that which produces Light there is nothing to hinder us from estimating the particles of the ether to be of a substance as nearly approaching to perfect hardness and possessing a springiness as prompt as we choose. It is not necessary to examine here the causes of this hardness, or of that springiness, the consideration of which would lead us too far from our subject. I will say, however, in passing that we may conceive that the particles of the ether" (Huygens, p. 14).


"But though we shall ignore the true cause of springiness we still see that there are many bodies which possess this property; and thus there is nothing strange in supposing that it exists also in little invisible bodies like the particles of the Ether. Also if one wishes to seek for any other way in which the movement of Light is successively communicated, one will find none which agrees better, with uniform progression, as seems to be necessary, than the property of springiness; because if this movement should grow slower in proportion as it is shared over a greater quantity of matter, in moving away from the source of the light, it could not conserve this great velocity over great distances. But by supposing springiness in the ethereal matter, its particles will have the property of equally rapid restitution whether they are pushed strongly or feebly; and thus the propagation of Light will always go on with an equal velocity." (Huygens, p. 15).

Huygens' light waves are formed by the motion of an ether that hardness forms a springiness which transfers the energy of the luminous source through a stationary ether in the formation of propagating light waves similar to the propagation of sound waves in air yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which proves the propagation of light does not involve an ether. Furthermore, sound waves are formed by the interaction of air molecules that are propagating in random directions. The collective motion of interacting air molecules that exchange kinetic energies form sound waves yet a light ray is composed of massless optic particles that are not interacting and are propagating in a single direction at a constant velocity which conflicts with Huygens' sound wave analogy.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




Huygens states the ether propagates through glass, water or mercury and exists within the glass vacuum tube.

"This may be proved by shutting up a sounding body in a glass vessel from which the air is withdrawn by the machine which Mr. Boyle has given us, and with which he has performed so many beautiful experiments. But in doing this of which I speak, care must be taken to place the sounding body on cotton or on feathers, in such a way that it cannot communicate its tremors either to the glass vessel which encloses it, or to the machine; a precaution which has hitherto been neglected. For then after having exhausted all the air one hears no Sound from the metal, though it is struck. One sees here not only that our air, which does not penetrate through glass, is the matter by which Sound spreads; but also that it is not the same air but another kind of matter in which Light spreads; since if the air is removed from the vessel the Light does not cease to traverse it as before. And this last point is demonstrated even more clearly by the celebrated experiment of Torricelli, in which the tube of glass from which the quicksilver has withdrawn itself, remaining void of air, transmits Light just the same as when air is in it. For this proves that a matter different from air exists in this tube, and that this matter must have penetrated the glass or the quicksilver, either one or the other, though they are both impenetrable to the air. And when, in the same experiment, one makes the vacuum after putting a little water above the quicksilver, one concludes equally that the said matter passes through glass or water, or through both." (Huygens, p. 11 & 12).

Huygens' wave theory of light is based on light waves formed by the motion of an ether, composed of matter yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which contradicts Huygens' wave theory of light; consequently, Huygens states that the ether, composed of matter, propagates through glass, water or mercury that is producing the vacuum of Torricelli's glass vacuum tube but the ether propagating through glass would produce a hole in the glass or shatter the glass and the ether propagating through mercury or water would be detectable; henceforth, light propagating through the glass vacuum tube proves the propagation of light does not involve Huygens' ether.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




Huygens describes spherical waves that originate from a candle flame (fig 3).

"I have then shown in what manner one may conceive Light to spread successively, by spherical waves, and how it is possible that this spreading is accomplished with as great a velocity as that which experiments and celestial observations demand. Whence it may be further remarked that although the particles are supposed to be in continual movement (for there are many reasons for this) the successive propagation of the waves cannot be hindered by this; because the propagation consists nowise in the transport of those particles but merely in a small agitation which they cannot help communicating to those surrounding, notwithstanding any movement which may act on them causing them to be changing positions amongst themselves.

But we must consider still more particularly the origin of these waves, and the manner in which they spread. And, first, it follows from what has been said on the production of Light, that each little region of a luminous body, such as the Sun, a candle, or a burning coal, generates its own waves of which that region is the centre. Thus in the flame of a candle, having distinguished the points A, B, C, concentric circles described about each of these points represent the waves which come from them. And one must imagine the same about every point of the surface and of the part within the flame." (Huygens, p. 17).

Huygens' candle flame produces optical spherical waves, from points A, B and C, by the motion of an ether that does not exist (vacuum). Huygens dismisses the fact that light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter and describes the "agitation" of the ether particles that form Huygens' optical spherical waves but the existence of Huygens' candle flame spherical waves is contingent on the existence of an ether, composed of matter, that does not exist.


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Huygens represents the propagation of light using spherical waves represented with partial waves that points C, C, C are used to construct the wave DCF (fig 4).


"There is the further consideration in the emanation of these waves, that each particle of matter in which a wave spreads, ought not to communicate its motion only to the next particle which is in the straight line drawn from the luminous point, but that it also imparts some of it necessarily to all the others which touch it and which oppose themselves to its movement. So it arises that around each particle there is made a wave of which that particle is the centre. Thus if DCF is a wave emanating from the luminous point A, which is its centre, the particle B, one of those comprised within the sphere DCF, will have made its particular or partial wave KCL, which will touch the wave DCF at C at the same moment that the principal wave emanating from the point A has arrived at DCF." (Huygens, p. 19).



Huygens' expanding spherical waves originate from points b, b, b, along the wave HI. The far points C, C, C, of the spherical waves are used to construct the wave DCF which represents Huygens' propagation mechanism of light but Huygens' wave HI is arbitrarily creating energy (spherical waves) which violates energy conservation.

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Huygens describes a light beam using expanding spherical waves that structures are arbitrarily eliminated at the boundaries of a light beam.

"To come to the properties of Light. We remark first that each portion of a wave ought to spread in such a way that its extremities lie always between the same straight lines drawn from the luminous point. Thus the portion BG of the wave, having the luminous point A as its centre, will spread into the arc CE bounded by the straight lines ABC, AGE. For although the particular waves produced by the particles comprised within the space CAE spread also outside this space, they yet do not concur at the same instant to compose a wave which terminates the movement, as they do precisely at the circumference CE, which is their common tangent.

And hence one sees the reason why light, at least if its rays are not reflected or broken, spreads only by straight lines, so that it illuminates no object except when the path from its source to that object is open along such lines." (Huygens, p. 21).

A light beam has distinct borders represented with boundaries (fig 2). Huygens' expanding spherical waves would propagate outside the boundary lines and produce an intensity outside the light beam; consequently, Huygens arbitrarily eliminates the expanding spherical waves structures at the boundary lines ABC and AGE.



_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________





Huygens describes the transmission and reflection effects of light (fig 5 & 6) using spherical waves generated by the transmission and reflection surface AB.


"If one considers further the other pieces H of the wave AC, it appears that they will not only have reached the surface AB by straight lines HK parallel to CB, but that in addition they will have generated in the transparent air, from the centres K, K, K, particular spherical waves, represented here by circumferences the semi-diameters of which are equal to KM, that is to say to the continuations of HK as far as the line BG parallel to AC." (Huygens, p. 24).

Huygens' expanding spherical waves originate from points K, K, K, along the glass surface AB (fig 23) which represents the arbitrary creation of energy by the glass surface which violates energy conservation. In addition, Huygens' spherical waves that are used to construct the reflection wave NB (fig 4) have varying circumferences that would form an inconsistent amplitude along the constructed reflection wave. Furthermore, the points of the spherical waves that are used to construct the reflection wave, propagate different distances from the glass surface to the reflection wave which cannot form the reflection wave that requires all of the spherical wave points to arrive at the reflection wave NB simultaneously. The same problems occur in the construction of the transmission light wave NB (fig 5).


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2017-11-22 21:57:34 UTC
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§ 2. Huygens




In Huygens' paper, "Treatise on Light" (1690), Huygens describes Roemer's observation of the period of Io that produces a 10 minute time delay.

"But that which I employed only as a hypothesis, has recently received great seemingness as an established truth by the ingenious proof of Mr. Römer which I am going here to relate, expecting him himself to give all that is needed for its confirmation. It is founded as is the preceding argument upon celestial observations, and proves not only that Light takes time for its passage, but also demonstrates how much time it takes, and that its velocity is even at least six times greater than that which I have just stated. For this he makes use of the Eclipses suffered by the little planets which revolve around Jupiter, and which often enter his shadow: and see what is his reasoning." (Huygens, p. 8-9).

"Hence, if light would travel the diameter of the Earth in one second, it would travel each interval FG and KL in 3 1/2 minutes. This should lead to a deviation of about half an hour between two revolutions of this satellite observed in FG and KL respectively. On the other hand, nothing of such a substantial difference has been found." (Roemer, p. 276).

"For instance, 40 revolutions observed from the side F should be substantially shorter that 40 other revolutions, observed from the opposite side (this effect is independent of any position in the Zodiac where Jupiter would be located), and this is in a ratio of 22 to the interval HE, which is twice the distance from us to the Sun.The necessity of the new equation of delayed light was established by all the observations obtained at the Royal Academy and the Observatory during the past 8 years. This was verified later, by the appearance of the first satellite from the shadow of Jupiter, observed in the evening 5h35m45s on November 9 of this year, in Paris, that occurred 10 minutes later than it was expected on the basis of the observations produced in August, when the Earth was much closer to Jupiter; this was predicted by monsieur Rømer, at the Academy in the beginning of September ." (Roemer, p. 277-8).

Roemer did not measure or calculate the velocity of light in his three page paper. Roemer describes the time delay of the period of Io, a moon of Jupiter, and the earth's orbital diameter HE. Roemer states that after a ten month time interval between November 9 and the beginning of September a 10 minute time delay of Io's period was recorded that Roemer attributed to the velocity of light.


______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



Huygens calculates the velocity of light using the earth's orbital diameter KL and a 22 minute time delay of the period of Io (fig 2).

"If one considers the vast size of the diameter KL, which according to me is some 24 thousand diameters of the Earth, one will acknowledge the extreme velocity of Light. For, supposing that KL is no more than 22 thousand of these diameters, it appears that being traversed in 22 minutes this makes the speed a thousand diameters in one minute, that is 16-2/3 diameters in one second or in one beat of the pulse, which makes more than 11 hundred times a hundred thousand toises; since the diameter of the Earth contains 2,865 leagues, reckoned at 25 to the degree, and each each league is 2,282 Toises, according to the exact measurement which Mr. Picard made by order of the King in 1669. But Sound, as I have said above, only travels 180 toises in the same time of one second: hence the velocity of Light is more than six hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. This, however, is quite another thing from being instantaneous, since there is all the difference between a finite thing and an infinite. Now the successive movement of Light being confirmed in this way, it follows, as I have said, that it spreads by spherical waves, like the movement of Sound." (Huygens, p. 10-11).

Huygens uses the earth's orbital diameter KL and a 22 minute time delay of the period of Io to calculate the velocity of light; Huygens' calculation is based on a 22 minute time delay of Io's period that is produce by the finite magnitude of the velocity of light and the earth's orbital diameter KL but after the earth propagates to the position L, Huygens cannot view Io since at position L, the dark side of the earth (night) is not facing Jupiter. Example, Jupiter is in opposition on May 9, 2018 and on November 9, 2018 after the earth propagates the distance of the earth's orbital diameter in a six month time period Jupiter does not appear in the night sky (http://www.seasky.org/astronomy/astronomy-calendar-2018.html.).


______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



Huygens' describes light using spherical waves based on a sound wave analogy.


"We know that by means of the air, which is an invisible and impalpable body, Sound spreads around the spot where it has been produced, by a movement which is passed on successively from one part of the air to another; and that the spreading of this movement, taking place equally rapidly on all sides, ought to form spherical surfaces ever enlarging and which strike our ears. Now there is no doubt at all that light also comes from the luminous body to our eyes by some movement impressed on the matter which is between the two; since, as we have already seen, it cannot be by the transport of a body which passes from one to the other. If, in addition, light takes time for its passage—which we are now going to examine—it will follow that this movement, impressed on the intervening matter, is successive; and consequently it spreads, as Sound does, by spherical surfaces and waves" (Huygens, p. 5).

"It is true that we are here supposing a strange velocity that would be a hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. For Sound, according to what I have observed, travels about 180 Toises in the time of one Second, or in about one beat of the pulse. But this supposition ought not to seem to be an impossibility; since it is not a question of the transport of a body with so great a speed, but of a successive movement which is passed on from some bodies to others. I have then made no difficulty, in meditating on these things, in supposing that the emanation of light is accomplished with time, seeing that in this way all its phenomena can be explained, and that in following the contrary opinion everything is incomprehensible. For it has always seemed tome that even Mr. Des Cartes, whose aim has been to treat all the subjects of Physics intelligibly, and who assuredly has succeeded in this better than any one before him, has said nothing that is not full of difficulties, or even inconceivable, in dealing with Light and its properties." (Huygens, p. 7).


"the velocity of Light is more than six hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. This, however, is quite another thing from being instantaneous, since there is all the difference between a finite thing and an infinite. Now the successive movement of Light being confirmed in this way, it follows, as I have said, that it spreads by spherical waves, like the movement of Sound." (Huygens, p. 10).

Huygens' optical spherical waves are formed by the motion of an ether composed of matter yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which contradicts the existence of Huygens' ether and spherical waves. A wave is a mechanical entity that is formed by the motion of a medium, composed of matter (solid, liquid or gas). Example, air is the medium that forms sound waves which are produced by the exchange of the kinetic energies of interacting air molecules but sound cannot propagate in vacuum since vacuum is void of air molecules required in forming sound waves yet Huygens is using an acoustical analogy to represent the propagation of light. One of the most important physical characteristic of sound is not applicable to light since light propagates in vacuum that is void of air that is required in forming sound yet Huygens is using an acoustical analogy to describe the propagation of light.


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Huygens is describing the formation of light waves produced by the motion of an ether, composed of matter.


"Now if one examines what this matter may be in which the movement coming from the luminous body is propagated, which I call Ethereal matter" (Huygens, p. 11).


"But the extreme velocity of Light, and other properties which it has, cannot admit of such a propagation of motion, and I am about to show here the way in which I conceive it must occur. For this, it is needful to explain the property which hard bodies must possess to transmit movement from one to another." (Huygens, p. 13).


"But it is still certain that this progression of motion is not instantaneous, but successive, and therefore must take time. For if the movement, or the disposition to movement, if you will have it so, did not pass successively through all these spheres, they would all acquire the movement at the same time, and hence would all advance together; which does not happen. For the last one leaves the whole row and acquires the speed of the one which was pushed. Moreover there are experiments which demonstrate that all the bodies which we reckon of the hardest kind, such as quenched steel, glass, and agate, act as springs and bend somehow, not only when extended as rods but also when they are in the form of spheres or of other shapes." (Huygens, p. 13).


"Now in applying this kind of movement to that which produces Light there is nothing to hinder us from estimating the particles of the ether to be of a substance as nearly approaching to perfect hardness and possessing a springiness as prompt as we choose. It is not necessary to examine here the causes of this hardness, or of that springiness, the consideration of which would lead us too far from our subject. I will say, however, in passing that we may conceive that the particles of the ether" (Huygens, p. 14).


"But though we shall ignore the true cause of springiness we still see that there are many bodies which possess this property; and thus there is nothing strange in supposing that it exists also in little invisible bodies like the particles of the Ether. Also if one wishes to seek for any other way in which the movement of Light is successively communicated, one will find none which agrees better, with uniform progression, as seems to be necessary, than the property of springiness; because if this movement should grow slower in proportion as it is shared over a greater quantity of matter, in moving away from the source of the light, it could not conserve this great velocity over great distances. But by supposing springiness in the ethereal matter, its particles will have the property of equally rapid restitution whether they are pushed strongly or feebly; and thus the propagation of Light will always go on with an equal velocity." (Huygens, p. 15).

Huygens' light waves are formed by the motion of an ether that hardness forms a springiness which transfers the energy of the luminous source through a stationary ether in the formation of propagating light waves similar to the propagation of sound waves in air yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which proves the propagation of light does not involve an ether. Furthermore, sound waves are formed by the interaction of air molecules that are propagating in random directions. The collective motion of interacting air molecules that exchange kinetic energies form sound waves yet a light ray is composed of massless optic particles that are not interacting and are propagating in a single direction at a constant velocity which conflicts with Huygens' sound wave analogy.

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Huygens states the ether propagates through glass, water or mercury and exists within the glass vacuum tube.

"This may be proved by shutting up a sounding body in a glass vessel from which the air is withdrawn by the machine which Mr. Boyle has given us, and with which he has performed so many beautiful experiments. But in doing this of which I speak, care must be taken to place the sounding body on cotton or on feathers, in such a way that it cannot communicate its tremors either to the glass vessel which encloses it, or to the machine; a precaution which has hitherto been neglected. For then after having exhausted all the air one hears no Sound from the metal, though it is struck. One sees here not only that our air, which does not penetrate through glass, is the matter by which Sound spreads; but also that it is not the same air but another kind of matter in which Light spreads; since if the air is removed from the vessel the Light does not cease to traverse it as before. And this last point is demonstrated even more clearly by the celebrated experiment of Torricelli, in which the tube of glass from which the quicksilver has withdrawn itself, remaining void of air, transmits Light just the same as when air is in it. For this proves that a matter different from air exists in this tube, and that this matter must have penetrated the glass or the quicksilver, either one or the other, though they are both impenetrable to the air. And when, in the same experiment, one makes the vacuum after putting a little water above the quicksilver, one concludes equally that the said matter passes through glass or water, or through both." (Huygens, p. 11 & 12).

Huygens' wave theory of light is based on light waves formed by the motion of an ether, composed of matter yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which contradicts Huygens' wave theory of light; consequently, Huygens states that the ether, composed of matter, propagates through glass, water or mercury that is producing the vacuum of Torricelli's glass vacuum tube but the ether propagating through glass would produce a hole in the glass or shatter the glass and the ether propagating through mercury or water would be detectable; henceforth, light propagating through the glass vacuum tube proves the propagation of light does not involve Huygens' ether.

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Huygens describes spherical waves that originate from a candle flame (fig 3).

"I have then shown in what manner one may conceive Light to spread successively, by spherical waves, and how it is possible that this spreading is accomplished with as great a velocity as that which experiments and celestial observations demand. Whence it may be further remarked that although the particles are supposed to be in continual movement (for there are many reasons for this) the successive propagation of the waves cannot be hindered by this; because the propagation consists nowise in the transport of those particles but merely in a small agitation which they cannot help communicating to those surrounding, notwithstanding any movement which may act on them causing them to be changing positions amongst themselves.

But we must consider still more particularly the origin of these waves, and the manner in which they spread. And, first, it follows from what has been said on the production of Light, that each little region of a luminous body, such as the Sun, a candle, or a burning coal, generates its own waves of which that region is the centre. Thus in the flame of a candle, having distinguished the points A, B, C, concentric circles described about each of these points represent the waves which come from them. And one must imagine the same about every point of the surface and of the part within the flame." (Huygens, p. 17).

Huygens' candle flame produces optical spherical waves, from points A, B and C, by the motion of an ether that does not exist (vacuum). Huygens dismisses the fact that light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter and describes the "agitation" of the ether particles that form Huygens' optical spherical waves but the existence of Huygens' candle flame spherical waves is contingent on the existence of an ether, composed of matter, that does not exist.


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Huygens represents the propagation of light using spherical waves represented with partial waves that points C, C, C are used to construct the wave DCF (fig 4).


"There is the further consideration in the emanation of these waves, that each particle of matter in which a wave spreads, ought not to communicate its motion only to the next particle which is in the straight line drawn from the luminous point, but that it also imparts some of it necessarily to all the others which touch it and which oppose themselves to its movement. So it arises that around each particle there is made a wave of which that particle is the centre. Thus if DCF is a wave emanating from the luminous point A, which is its centre, the particle B, one of those comprised within the sphere DCF, will have made its particular or partial wave KCL, which will touch the wave DCF at C at the same moment that the principal wave emanating from the point A has arrived at DCF." (Huygens, p. 19).



Huygens' expanding spherical waves originate from points b, b, b, along the wave HI. The far points C, C, C, of the spherical waves are used to construct the wave DCF which represents Huygens' propagation mechanism of light but Huygens' wave HI is arbitrarily creating energy (spherical waves) which violates energy conservation.

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Huygens describes a light beam using expanding spherical waves that structures are arbitrarily eliminated at the boundaries of a light beam.

"To come to the properties of Light. We remark first that each portion of a wave ought to spread in such a way that its extremities lie always between the same straight lines drawn from the luminous point. Thus the portion BG of the wave, having the luminous point A as its centre, will spread into the arc CE bounded by the straight lines ABC, AGE. For although the particular waves produced by the particles comprised within the space CAE spread also outside this space, they yet do not concur at the same instant to compose a wave which terminates the movement, as they do precisely at the circumference CE, which is their common tangent.

And hence one sees the reason why light, at least if its rays are not reflected or broken, spreads only by straight lines, so that it illuminates no object except when the path from its source to that object is open along such lines." (Huygens, p. 21).

A light beam has distinct borders represented with boundaries (fig 2). Huygens' expanding spherical waves would propagate outside the boundary lines and produce an intensity outside the light beam; consequently, Huygens arbitrarily eliminates the expanding spherical waves structures at the boundary lines ABC and AGE.



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Huygens describes the transmission and reflection effects of light (fig 5 & 6) using spherical waves generated by the transmission and reflection surface AB.


"If one considers further the other pieces H of the wave AC, it appears that they will not only have reached the surface AB by straight lines HK parallel to CB, but that in addition they will have generated in the transparent air, from the centres K, K, K, particular spherical waves, represented here by circumferences the semi-diameters of which are equal to KM, that is to say to the continuations of HK as far as the line BG parallel to AC." (Huygens, p. 24).

Huygens' expanding spherical waves originate from points K, K, K, along the glass surface AB (fig 23) which represents the arbitrary creation of energy by the glass surface which violates energy conservation. In addition, Huygens' spherical waves that are used to construct the reflection wave NB (fig 4) have varying circumferences that would form an inconsistent amplitude along the constructed reflection wave. Furthermore, the points of the spherical waves that are used to construct the reflection wave, propagate different distances from the glass surface to the reflection wave which cannot form the reflection wave that requires all of the spherical wave points to arrive at the reflection wave NB simultaneously. The same problems occur in the construction of the transmission light wave NB (fig 5).


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2017-11-26 23:35:33 UTC
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§ 2. Huygens




In Huygens' paper, "Treatise on Light" (1690), Huygens describes Roemer's observation of the period of Io that produces a 10 minute time delay.

"But that which I employed only as a hypothesis, has recently received great seemingness as an established truth by the ingenious proof of Mr. Römer which I am going here to relate, expecting him himself to give all that is needed for its confirmation. It is founded as is the preceding argument upon celestial observations, and proves not only that Light takes time for its passage, but also demonstrates how much time it takes, and that its velocity is even at least six times greater than that which I have just stated. For this he makes use of the Eclipses suffered by the little planets which revolve around Jupiter, and which often enter his shadow: and see what is his reasoning." (Huygens, p. 8-9).

"Hence, if light would travel the diameter of the Earth in one second, it would travel each interval FG and KL in 3 1/2 minutes. This should lead to a deviation of about half an hour between two revolutions of this satellite observed in FG and KL respectively. On the other hand, nothing of such a substantial difference has been found." (Roemer, p. 276).

"For instance, 40 revolutions observed from the side F should be substantially shorter that 40 other revolutions, observed from the opposite side (this effect is independent of any position in the Zodiac where Jupiter would be located), and this is in a ratio of 22 to the interval HE, which is twice the distance from us to the Sun.The necessity of the new equation of delayed light was established by all the observations obtained at the Royal Academy and the Observatory during the past 8 years. This was verified later, by the appearance of the first satellite from the shadow of Jupiter, observed in the evening 5h35m45s on November 9 of this year, in Paris, that occurred 10 minutes later than it was expected on the basis of the observations produced in August, when the Earth was much closer to Jupiter; this was predicted by monsieur Rømer, at the Academy in the beginning of September ." (Roemer, p. 277-8).


Roemer did not measure or calculate the velocity of light in his three page paper. Roemer describes the time delay of the period of Io, a moon of Jupiter, and the earth's orbital diameter HE. Roemer states that after a ten month time interval between November 9 and the beginning of September a 10 minute time delay of Io's period was recorded that Roemer attributed to the velocity of light.


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Huygens calculates the velocity of light using the earth's orbital diameter KL and a 22 minute time delay of the period of Io (fig 2).


"If one considers the vast size of the diameter KL, which according to me is some 24 thousand diameters of the Earth, one will acknowledge the extreme velocity of Light. For, supposing that KL is no more than 22 thousand of these diameters, it appears that being traversed in 22 minutes this makes the speed a thousand diameters in one minute, that is 16-2/3 diameters in one second or in one beat of the pulse, which makes more than 11 hundred times a hundred thousand toises; since the diameter of the Earth contains 2,865 leagues, reckoned at 25 to the degree, and each each league is 2,282 Toises, according to the exact measurement which Mr. Picard made by order of the King in 1669. But Sound, as I have said above, only travels 180 toises in the same time of one second: hence the velocity of Light is more than six hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. This, however, is quite another thing from being instantaneous, since there is all the difference between a finite thing and an infinite. Now the successive movement of Light being confirmed in this way, it follows, as I have said, that it spreads by spherical waves, like the movement of Sound." (Huygens, p. 10-11).


Huygens uses the earth's orbital diameter KL and a 22 minute time delay of the period of Io to calculate the velocity of light; Huygens' calculation is based on a 22 minute time delay of Io's period that is produce by light propagating the distance of the earth's orbital diameter KL but at the position L, Huygens cannot view Io since the dark side of the earth (night) is not facing Jupiter. Example, Jupiter is in opposition on May 9, 2018 and on November 9, 2018 after the earth propagates the distance of the earth's orbital diameter in a six month time period Jupiter does not appear in the night sky (http://www.seasky.org/astronomy/astronomy-calendar-2018.html.).



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Huygens' describes light using spherical waves based on a sound wave analogy.


"We know that by means of the air, which is an invisible and impalpable body, Sound spreads around the spot where it has been produced, by a movement which is passed on successively from one part of the air to another; and that the spreading of this movement, taking place equally rapidly on all sides, ought to form spherical surfaces ever enlarging and which strike our ears. Now there is no doubt at all that light also comes from the luminous body to our eyes by some movement impressed on the matter which is between the two; since, as we have already seen, it cannot be by the transport of a body which passes from one to the other. If, in addition, light takes time for its passage—which we are now going to examine—it will follow that this movement, impressed on the intervening matter, is successive; and consequently it spreads, as Sound does, by spherical surfaces and waves" (Huygens, p. 5).

"It is true that we are here supposing a strange velocity that would be a hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. For Sound, according to what I have observed, travels about 180 Toises in the time of one Second, or in about one beat of the pulse. But this supposition ought not to seem to be an impossibility; since it is not a question of the transport of a body with so great a speed, but of a successive movement which is passed on from some bodies to others. I have then made no difficulty, in meditating on these things, in supposing that the emanation of light is accomplished with time, seeing that in this way all its phenomena can be explained, and that in following the contrary opinion everything is incomprehensible. For it has always seemed tome that even Mr. Des Cartes, whose aim has been to treat all the subjects of Physics intelligibly, and who assuredly has succeeded in this better than any one before him, has said nothing that is not full of difficulties, or even inconceivable, in dealing with Light and its properties." (Huygens, p. 7).


"the velocity of Light is more than six hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. This, however, is quite another thing from being instantaneous, since there is all the difference between a finite thing and an infinite. Now the successive movement of Light being confirmed in this way, it follows, as I have said, that it spreads by spherical waves, like the movement of Sound." (Huygens, p. 10).


Huygens' optical spherical waves are formed by the motion of an ether composed of matter yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which contradicts the existence of Huygens' ether and spherical waves. A wave is a mechanical entity that is formed by the motion of a medium, composed of matter (solid, liquid or gas). Example, air is the medium that forms sound waves which are produced by the exchange of the kinetic energies of interacting air molecules but sound cannot propagate in vacuum since vacuum is void of air molecules required in forming sound waves yet Huygens is using an acoustical analogy to represent the propagation of light. One of the most important physical characteristic of sound is not applicable to light since light propagates in vacuum that is void of air which is required in forming sound yet Huygens is using an acoustical analogy to describe the propagation of light.



______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




Huygens is describing the formation of light waves produced by the motion of an ether, composed of matter.


"Now if one examines what this matter may be in which the movement coming from the luminous body is propagated, which I call Ethereal matter" (Huygens, p. 11).


"But the extreme velocity of Light, and other properties which it has, cannot admit of such a propagation of motion, and I am about to show here the way in which I conceive it must occur. For this, it is needful to explain the property which hard bodies must possess to transmit movement from one to another." (Huygens, p. 13).


"But it is still certain that this progression of motion is not instantaneous, but successive, and therefore must take time. For if the movement, or the disposition to movement, if you will have it so, did not pass successively through all these spheres, they would all acquire the movement at the same time, and hence would all advance together; which does not happen. For the last one leaves the whole row and acquires the speed of the one which was pushed. Moreover there are experiments which demonstrate that all the bodies which we reckon of the hardest kind, such as quenched steel, glass, and agate, act as springs and bend somehow, not only when extended as rods but also when they are in the form of spheres or of other shapes." (Huygens, p. 13).


"Now in applying this kind of movement to that which produces Light there is nothing to hinder us from estimating the particles of the ether to be of a substance as nearly approaching to perfect hardness and possessing a springiness as prompt as we choose. It is not necessary to examine here the causes of this hardness, or of that springiness, the consideration of which would lead us too far from our subject. I will say, however, in passing that we may conceive that the particles of the ether" (Huygens, p. 14).


"But though we shall ignore the true cause of springiness we still see that there are many bodies which possess this property; and thus there is nothing strange in supposing that it exists also in little invisible bodies like the particles of the Ether. Also if one wishes to seek for any other way in which the movement of Light is successively communicated, one will find none which agrees better, with uniform progression, as seems to be necessary, than the property of springiness; because if this movement should grow slower in proportion as it is shared over a greater quantity of matter, in moving away from the source of the light, it could not conserve this great velocity over great distances. But by supposing springiness in the ethereal matter, its particles will have the property of equally rapid restitution whether they are pushed strongly or feebly; and thus the propagation of Light will always go on with an equal velocity." (Huygens, p. 15).

Huygens' light waves are formed by the motion of an ether that hardness forms a springiness which transfers the energy of the luminous source through a stationary ether in the formation of propagating light waves similar to the propagation of sound waves in air yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which proves the propagation of light does not involve an ether. Sound waves are formed by the interaction of air molecules that are propagating in random directions. The collective motion of interacting air molecules that exchange kinetic energies form sound waves yet a light ray is composed of massless optic particles that are not interacting and are propagating in a single direction at a constant velocity which conflicts with Huygens' sound wave analogy.



______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




Huygens states the ether propagates through glass, water or mercury and exists within the glass vacuum tube.

"This may be proved by shutting up a sounding body in a glass vessel from which the air is withdrawn by the machine which Mr. Boyle has given us, and with which he has performed so many beautiful experiments. But in doing this of which I speak, care must be taken to place the sounding body on cotton or on feathers, in such a way that it cannot communicate its tremors either to the glass vessel which encloses it, or to the machine; a precaution which has hitherto been neglected. For then after having exhausted all the air one hears no Sound from the metal, though it is struck. One sees here not only that our air, which does not penetrate through glass, is the matter by which Sound spreads; but also that it is not the same air but another kind of matter in which Light spreads; since if the air is removed from the vessel the Light does not cease to traverse it as before. And this last point is demonstrated even more clearly by the celebrated experiment of Torricelli, in which the tube of glass from which the quicksilver has withdrawn itself, remaining void of air, transmits Light just the same as when air is in it. For this proves that a matter different from air exists in this tube, and that this matter must have penetrated the glass or the quicksilver, either one or the other, though they are both impenetrable to the air. And when, in the same experiment, one makes the vacuum after putting a little water above the quicksilver, one concludes equally that the said matter passes through glass or water, or through both." (Huygens, p. 11 & 12).

Huygens' wave theory of light is based on light waves formed by the motion of an ether, composed of matter yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which contradicts Huygens' wave theory of light; consequently, Huygens states that the ether, composed of matter, propagates through glass, water or mercury that is producing the vacuum of Torricelli's glass vacuum tube but the ether propagating through glass would produce a hole in the glass or shatter the glass and the ether propagating through mercury or water would be detectable; henceforth, light propagating through the glass vacuum tube proves the propagation of light does not involve Huygens' ether.



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Huygens describes spherical waves that originate from a candle flame (fig 3).

"I have then shown in what manner one may conceive Light to spread successively, by spherical waves, and how it is possible that this spreading is accomplished with as great a velocity as that which experiments and celestial observations demand. Whence it may be further remarked that although the particles are supposed to be in continual movement (for there are many reasons for this) the successive propagation of the waves cannot be hindered by this; because the propagation consists nowise in the transport of those particles but merely in a small agitation which they cannot help communicating to those surrounding, notwithstanding any movement which may act on them causing them to be changing positions amongst themselves.


But we must consider still more particularly the origin of these waves, and the manner in which they spread. And, first, it follows from what has been said on the production of Light, that each little region of a luminous body, such as the Sun, a candle, or a burning coal, generates its own waves of which that region is the centre. Thus in the flame of a candle, having distinguished the points A, B, C, concentric circles described about each of these points represent the waves which come from them. And one must imagine the same about every point of the surface and of the part within the flame." (Huygens, p. 17).

Huygens' candle flame produces optical spherical waves, from points A, B and C, by the motion of an ether that does not exist (vacuum). Huygens dismisses the fact that light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter and describes the "agitation" of the ether particles that form Huygens' optical spherical waves but the existence of Huygens' candle flame spherical waves is contingent on the existence of an ether, composed of matter, that does not exist.


______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________





Huygens represents the propagation of light using spherical waves represented with partial waves that points C, C, C are used to construct the wave DCF (fig 4).


"There is the further consideration in the emanation of these waves, that each particle of matter in which a wave spreads, ought not to communicate its motion only to the next particle which is in the straight line drawn from the luminous point, but that it also imparts some of it necessarily to all the others which touch it and which oppose themselves to its movement. So it arises that around each particle there is made a wave of which that particle is the centre. Thus if DCF is a wave emanating from the luminous point A, which is its centre, the particle B, one of those comprised within the sphere DCF, will have made its particular or partial wave KCL, which will touch the wave DCF at C at the same moment that the principal wave emanating from the point A has arrived at DCF." (Huygens, p. 19).



Huygens' expanding spherical waves originate from points b, b, b, along the wave HI. The far points C, C, C, of the spherical waves are used to construct the wave DCF which represents Huygens' propagation mechanism of light but Huygens' wave HI is arbitrarily creating energy (spherical waves) which violates energy conservation. Only the far points of the spherical wave, represented with partial waves KCL, are used to construct the wave DCF. The remaining structures of the partial waves between K and C, and between C and L are arbitrarily eliminated since after the wave DCF is constructed the remaining structure of the partial waves would overlap the wave DCF and represent the increase in the intensity of the light beam during propagation. Huygens mitigates the intensity catastrophe by ending the partial wave propagating mechanism of light the instant the wave DCF is constructed which represents an incomplete propagation mechanism of light since Huygens does not explain how the wave DCF propagates after being construct or the reason for the partial waves since Huygens previously described the propagation of light using spherical waves formed by a candle flame without using partial waves. Consequently, Huygens depicts two completely different wave propagation mechanism in the same paragraph. A principle wave that originates from the light source A propagates to the wave DCF and arrives at the wave DCF the instant the wave DCF is constructed. The principle wave appears to corresponds with the spherical waves formed by the candle fame (fig 2) and extends Huygens's partial wave propagation mechanism past the construction of the wave DCF but in numerous college physics text books the partial wave mechanism occurs at intervals of a wavelength which represents an enormous amount a energy that is being created. Huygens is attempting to conceal part of a diffraction mechanism in a propagation mechanism using partial waves formed by the wave HI since Huygens' partial waves that form between the waves HI and DCF are interacting yet are not interfering but the purposed of a wave structure is wave interference. Huygens is omitting the interference effect of the interfering partial waves since light that is propagating is not always interfering which contradicts Huygens' propagation mechanism of light using partial waves. Fresnel later uses Huygens' partial waves in a diffraction mechanism but Huygens's partial waves do not interfere.



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2017-11-28 00:32:12 UTC
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§ 2. Huygens



In Huygens' paper, "Treatise on Light" (1690), Huygens describes Roemer's observation of the period of Io that produces a 10 minute time delay..

"But that which I employed only as a hypothesis, has recently received great seemingness as an established truth by the ingenious proof of Mr. Römer which I am going here to relate, expecting him himself to give all that is needed for its confirmation. It is founded as is the preceding argument upon celestial observations, and proves not only that Light takes time for its passage, but also demonstrates how much time it takes, and that its velocity is even at least six times greater than that which I have just stated. For this he makes use of the Eclipses suffered by the little planets which revolve around Jupiter, and which often enter his shadow: and see what is his reasoning." (Huygens, p. 8-9)..



"Hence, if light would travel the diameter of the Earth in one second, it would travel each interval FG and KL in 3 1/2 minutes. This should lead to a deviation of about half an hour between two revolutions of this satellite observed in FG and KL respectively. On the other hand, nothing of such a substantial difference has been found." (Roemer, p. 276)..


"For instance, 40 revolutions observed from the side F should be substantially shorter that 40 other revolutions, observed from the opposite side (this effect is independent of any position in the Zodiac where Jupiter would be located), and this is in a ratio of 22 to the interval HE, which is twice the distance from us to the Sun.The necessity of the new equation of delayed light was established by all the observations obtained at the Royal Academy and the Observatory during the past 8 years. This was verified later, by the appearance of the first satellite from the shadow of Jupiter, observed in the evening 5h35m45s on November 9 of this year, in Paris, that occurred 10 minutes later than it was expected on the basis of the observations produced in August, when the Earth was much closer to Jupiter; this was predicted by monsieur Rømer, at the Academy in the beginning of September ." (Roemer, p. 277-8)..


Roemer did not measure or calculate the velocity of light in his three page paper. Roemer describes the time delay of the period of Io, a moon of Jupiter, and the earth's orbital diameter HE. Roemer states that after a ten month time interval between November 9 and the beginning of September a 10 minute time delay of Io's period was recorded that Roemer attributed to the velocity of light..



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Huygens calculates the velocity of light using the earth's orbital diameter KL and a 22 minute time delay of the period of Io (fig 2)..

"If one considers the vast size of the diameter KL, which according to me is some 24 thousand diameters of the Earth, one will acknowledge the extreme velocity of Light. For, supposing that KL is no more than 22 thousand of these diameters, it appears that being traversed in 22 minutes this makes the speed a thousand diameters in one minute, that is 16-2/3 diameters in one second or in one beat of the pulse, which makes more than 11 hundred times a hundred thousand toises; since the diameter of the Earth contains 2,865 leagues, reckoned at 25 to the degree, and each each league is 2,282 Toises, according to the exact measurement which Mr. Picard made by order of the King in 1669. But Sound, as I have said above, only travels 180 toises in the same time of one second: hence the velocity of Light is more than six hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. This, however, is quite another thing from being instantaneous, since there is all the difference between a finite thing and an infinite. Now the successive movement of Light being confirmed in this way, it follows, as I have said, that it spreads by spherical waves, like the movement of Sound." (Huygens, p. 10-11)..

Huygens uses the earth's orbital diameter KL and a 22 minute time delay of the period of Io to calculate the velocity of light. Huygens' calculation of the velocity of light is based on a 22 minute time delay of Io's period that is produced by light propagating the distance of the earth's orbital diameter KL but at the position L, Huygens cannot view Io since the dark side of the earth (night) is not facing Jupiter. Example, Jupiter is in opposition on May 9, 2018 and on November 9, 2018 after the earth propagates the distance of the earth's orbital diameter in a six month time period Jupiter does not appear in the night sky (http://www.seasky.org/astronomy/astronomy-calendar-2018.html.)..




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Huygens' describes light using spherical waves based on a sound wave analogy..


"We know that by means of the air, which is an invisible and impalpable body, Sound spreads around the spot where it has been produced, by a movement which is passed on successively from one part of the air to another; and that the spreading of this movement, taking place equally rapidly on all sides, ought to form spherical surfaces ever enlarging and which strike our ears. Now there is no doubt at all that light also comes from the luminous body to our eyes by some movement impressed on the matter which is between the two; since, as we have already seen, it cannot be by the transport of a body which passes from one to the other. If, in addition, light takes time for its passage—which we are now going to examine—it will follow that this movement, impressed on the intervening matter, is successive; and consequently it spreads, as Sound does, by spherical surfaces and waves" (Huygens, p. 5)..


"It is true that we are here supposing a strange velocity that would be a hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. For Sound, according to what I have observed, travels about 180 Toises in the time of one Second, or in about one beat of the pulse. But this supposition ought not to seem to be an impossibility; since it is not a question of the transport of a body with so great a speed, but of a successive movement which is passed on from some bodies to others. I have then made no difficulty, in meditating on these things, in supposing that the emanation of light is accomplished with time, seeing that in this way all its phenomena can be explained, and that in following the contrary opinion everything is incomprehensible. For it has always seemed tome that even Mr. Des Cartes, whose aim has been to treat all the subjects of Physics intelligibly, and who assuredly has succeeded in this better than any one before him, has said nothing that is not full of difficulties, or even inconceivable, in dealing with Light and its properties." (Huygens, p. 7)..


"the velocity of Light is more than six hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. This, however, is quite another thing from being instantaneous, since there is all the difference between a finite thing and an infinite. Now the successive movement of Light being confirmed in this way, it follows, as I have said, that it spreads by spherical waves, like the movement of Sound." (Huygens, p. 10)..


Huygens' optical spherical waves are formed by the motion of an ether composed of matter yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which contradicts the existence of Huygens' ether and spherical waves. A wave is a mechanical entity that is formed by the motion of a medium, composed of matter (solid, liquid or gas). Example, air is the medium that forms sound waves which are produced by the exchange of the kinetic energies of interacting air molecules but sound cannot propagate in vacuum since vacuum is void of air molecules required in forming sound waves yet Huygens is using an acoustical analogy to represent the propagation of light. One of the most important physical characteristic of sound is not applicable to light since light propagates in vacuum that is void of air which forms sound waves yet Huygens is using an acoustical analogy to describe the propagation of light using light waves..




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Huygens is describing the formation of light waves produced by the motion of an ether, composed of matter..


"Now if one examines what this matter may be in which the movement coming from the luminous body is propagated, which I call Ethereal matter" (Huygens, p. 11)..


"But the extreme velocity of Light, and other properties which it has, cannot admit of such a propagation of motion, and I am about to show here the way in which I conceive it must occur. For this, it is needful to explain the property which hard bodies must possess to transmit movement from one to another.". (Huygens, p. 13).


"But it is still certain that this progression of motion is not instantaneous, but successive, and therefore must take time. For if the movement, or the disposition to movement, if you will have it so, did not pass successively through all these spheres, they would all acquire the movement at the same time, and hence would all advance together; which does not happen. For the last one leaves the whole row and acquires the speed of the one which was pushed. Moreover there are experiments which demonstrate that all the bodies which we reckon of the hardest kind, such as quenched steel, glass, and agate, act as springs and bend somehow, not only when extended as rods but also when they are in the form of spheres or of other shapes." (Huygens, p. 13)..


"Now in applying this kind of movement to that which produces Light there is nothing to hinder us from estimating the particles of the ether to be of a substance as nearly approaching to perfect hardness and possessing a springiness as prompt as we choose. It is not necessary to examine here the causes of this hardness, or of that springiness, the consideration of which would lead us too far from our subject. I will say, however, in passing that we may conceive that the particles of the ether" (Huygens, p. 14)..


"But though we shall ignore the true cause of springiness we still see that there are many bodies which possess this property; and thus there is nothing strange in supposing that it exists also in little invisible bodies like the particles of the Ether. Also if one wishes to seek for any other way in which the movement of Light is successively communicated, one will find none which agrees better, with uniform progression, as seems to be necessary, than the property of springiness; because if this movement should grow slower in proportion as it is shared over a greater quantity of matter, in moving away from the source of the light, it could not conserve this great velocity over great distances. But by supposing springiness in the ethereal matter, its particles will have the property of equally rapid restitution whether they are pushed strongly or feebly; and thus the propagation of Light will always go on with an equal velocity." (Huygens, p. 15)..


Huygens' light waves are formed by the motion of an ether that hardness forms a springiness which transfers the energy of the luminous source through a stationary ether in the formation of propagating light waves similar to the propagation of sound waves in air. Sound cannot form sound waves in vacuum yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter. Sound waves are formed by the interaction of air molecules that are propagating in random directions. The collective motion of interacting air molecules that exchange kinetic energies form sound waves yet a light ray is composed of massless optic particles that are not interacting and exchanging kinetic energies in the formation of light waves. Light particles of a laser are propagating in a comparatively single direction at a constant velocity which conflicts with Huygens' sound wave analogy..



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Huygens states the ether propagates through glass, water or mercury and exists within the glass vacuum tube.


"This may be proved by shutting up a sounding body in a glass vessel from which the air is withdrawn by the machine which Mr. Boyle has given us, and with which he has performed so many beautiful experiments. But in doing this of which I speak, care must be taken to place the sounding body on cotton or on feathers, in such a way that it cannot communicate its tremors either to the glass vessel which encloses it, or to the machine; a precaution which has hitherto been neglected. For then after having exhausted all the air one hears no Sound from the metal, though it is struck. One sees here not only that our air, which does not penetrate through glass, is the matter by which Sound spreads; but also that it is not the same air but another kind of matter in which Light spreads; since if the air is removed from the vessel the Light does not cease to traverse it as before. And this last point is demonstrated even more clearly by the celebrated experiment of Torricelli, in which the tube of glass from which the quicksilver has withdrawn itself, remaining void of air, transmits Light just the same as when air is in it. For this proves that a matter different from air exists in this tube, and that this matter must have penetrated the glass or the quicksilver, either one or the other, though they are both impenetrable to the air. And when, in the same experiment, one makes the vacuum after putting a little water above the quicksilver, one concludes equally that the said matter passes through glass or water, or through both." (Huygens, p. 11 & 12)..


Huygens' wave theory of light is based on light waves formed by the motion of an ether, composed of matter yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which contradicts Huygens' wave theory of light. Huygens states that the ether, composed of matter, propagates through glass, water or mercury but the ether propagating through glass would produce a hole in the glass or shatter the glass and the ether propagating through mercury or water would be detectable. Light propagating through the glass vacuum tube proves the propagation of light does not involve Huygens' ether..




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Huygens describes spherical waves that originate from a candle flame (fig 3)..


"I have then shown in what manner one may conceive Light to spread successively, by spherical waves, and how it is possible that this spreading is accomplished with as great a velocity as that which experiments and celestial observations demand. Whence it may be further remarked that although the particles are supposed to be in continual movement (for there are many reasons for this) the successive propagation of the waves cannot be hindered by this; because the propagation consists nowise in the transport of those particles but merely in a small agitation which they cannot help communicating to those surrounding, notwithstanding any movement which may act on them causing them to be changing positions amongst themselves..


But we must consider still more particularly the origin of these waves, and the manner in which they spread. And, first, it follows from what has been said on the production of Light, that each little region of a luminous body, such as the Sun, a candle, or a burning coal, generates its own waves of which that region is the centre. Thus in the flame of a candle, having distinguished the points A, B, C, concentric circles described about each of these points represent the waves which come from them. And one must imagine the same about every point of the surface and of the part within the flame." (Huygens, p. 17)..


Huygens' candle flame produces optical spherical waves, from points A, B and C, by the motion of an ether that does not exist (vacuum). Huygens dismisses the fact that light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter and describes the "agitation" of the ether particles that form Huygens' optical spherical waves but the existence of Huygens' candle flame spherical waves is contingent on the existence of an ether, composed of matter, that does not exist..



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Huygens represents the propagation of light using spherical waves represented with partial waves that points C, C, C are used to construct the wave DCF (fig 4)..


"There is the further consideration in the emanation of these waves, that each particle of matter in which a wave spreads, ought not to communicate its motion only to the next particle which is in the straight line drawn from the luminous point, but that it also imparts some of it necessarily to all the others which touch it and which oppose themselves to its movement. So it arises that around each particle there is made a wave of which that particle is the centre. Thus if DCF is a wave emanating from the luminous point A, which is its centre, the particle B, one of those comprised within the sphere DCF, will have made its particular or partial wave KCL, which will touch the wave DCF at C at the same moment that the principal wave emanating from the point A has arrived at DCF." (Huygens, p. 19)..



Huygens' expanding spherical waves originate from points b, b, b, along the wave HI. The far points C, C, C, of the spherical waves are used to construct the wave DCF which represents Huygens' propagation mechanism of light but Huygens' wave HI is arbitrarily creating energy (spherical waves) which violates energy conservation. Only the far points of the spherical wave, represented with partial waves KCL, are used to construct the wave DCF. The remaining structures of the partial waves between K and C, and between C and L are arbitrarily eliminated since after the wave DCF is constructed, the remaining structure of the partial waves would overlap the wave DCF and represent the increase in the intensity of the light beam during propagation. Huygens mitigates the intensity catastrophe by ending the partial wave propagating mechanism of light the instant the wave DCF is constructed which represents an incomplete propagation mechanism of light since Huygens does not explain how the wave DCF propagates after being constructed. Huygens depicts two completely different wave propagation mechanism in the same paragraph. A principle wave that originates from the light source A propagates to the wave DCF and arrives at the wave DCF the instant the wave DCF is constructed. The principle wave appears to corresponds with the spherical waves formed by the candle fame (fig 2) and extends Huygens's partial wave propagation mechanism past the construction of the wave DCF but in numerous college physics text books the partial wave mechanism occurs at intervals of a wavelength and there is a structural disconnect between the wave DCF and the principle wave. Huygens is attempting to conceal part of a diffraction mechanism in a propagation mechanism using partial waves formed by the wave HI since Huygens' partial waves overlap while between the waves HI and DCF yet the overlapping partial waves are not interacting but the purposed of a wave structure is wave interference. Huygens is omitting the interference effect of the overlapping partial waves since light that is propagating is not always interfering which would contradicts Huygens' propagation mechanism of light using partial waves. Fresnel later uses Huygens' partial waves in a diffraction mechanism but Huygens's partial waves do not interfere...



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n***@gmail.com
2017-11-28 20:16:39 UTC
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Carl Susumu
2017-11-28 20:56:47 UTC
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§ 26. Maxwell's Equations
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With the method developed in the derivation of the equations of the atomic orbitals allows for the derivation of Maxwell's equations and Maxwell's structure of light. Maxwell's electric curl equation is derived using Faraday's wire loop induction effect represented with the magnetic flux (fig 15),
emf = - ʃʃ (dB/dt)· dA...........................................89
A second wire loop emf equation is used that represents the internal electric field E that forms the wire loop emf,
emf = ʃ E · dl.......................................................90
Equating equations 89 and 90,
ʃ E · dl = - ʃʃ (dB/dt)· dA.......................................91
Using Stokes' theorem (Hecht, p. 649),
ʃ E · dl = - ʃʃ (∇ x E)· dA......................................92
Equating equations 91 and 92,
- ʃʃ(dB/dt)· dA = ʃʃ (∇ x E)· dA.............................93
Maxwell electric curl equation is derived using equation 93,
∇ x E = - dB/dt...................................................94
Faraday's induction effect depicts an internal electric current that only forms within the conduction wire represented in equation 90 yet Maxwell's electric curl equation (equ 94) is used to represent an electric field of an electromagnetic light wave that exists in the space outside the conduction wire which violates Faraday's induction mechanism. Furthermore, Faraday's induction effect is not luminous yet Maxwell's equations are used to represent the structure of light. In addition, the magnetic flux of Faraday's induction effect is pointing in the direction of the propagation which represents a longitudinal magnetic wave yet Maxwell's electric curl equation is being used to derive the electromagnetic transverse wave equations of light.
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n***@gmail.com
2017-11-30 00:38:52 UTC
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Carl Susumu
2017-11-30 00:54:55 UTC
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n***@gmail.com
2017-11-30 19:40:40 UTC
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(Fresnel, 53). Fresnel's derivation of the diffraction intensity equation is based on a line integral where dz represents a segment of the wave AMI. Fresnel uses the line integral to summate the interfering light waves' amplitudes at the diffraction screen point P (fig 7) but the point P is not within the limits of Fresnel's line integral (equ 1), and a line integral is not a summation since an integral forms an exact area under a curve yet a summation produces an approximation. Leibniz's integral is derived from the invention of the derivative which resulted in the anti-derivative not by using a summation. The crests and nodes of Fresnel's light waves propagate in the forward direction. At the diffraction screen, the propagating light waves' amplitudes would result in the spherical waves' amplitudes to oscillate forming an average resultant amplitude of zero that would eliminate the diffraction pattern.
n***@gmail.com
2017-12-01 21:13:59 UTC
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Fresnel derives a diffraction intensity equation by summating the interfering light waves' amplitudes, at the diffraction screen, using a line integral (equ 1).


"Hence the intensity of the vibration at P resulting from all these small disturbances is





{ [ ʃ dz cos (π z2 (a + b) / abλ) ]2 + [ ʃ dz sin (π z2 (a + b) / abλ)]2 }1/2 "..................................1




(Fresnel, 53). Fresnel's derivation of the diffraction intensity equation is based on a line integral where dz represents a segment of the wave AMI. Fresnel uses the line integral to summate the interfering light waves' amplitudes at the diffraction screen point P (fig 7) but the point P is not within the limits of Fresnel's line integral (equ 1), and a line integral is not a summation since an integral forms an exact area under a curve yet a summation repesents an approximation. Leibniz's integral is derived from the invention of the derivative which resulted in the anti-derivative not by using a summation. The crests and nodes of Fresnel's light waves propagate in the forward direction. At the diffraction screen, the propagating light waves' amplitudes would result in the spherical waves' amplitudes to oscillate forming an average resultant amplitude of zero that would eliminate the diffraction pattern.


The formation of the small rectangular aperture diffraction pattern (fig 8) is represented using wave interference but the destructive interference of the light waves' amplitudes (energy) used to form the dark fringes of the diffraction pattern represents the destruction of light intensity that would result in a reduction in the total light intensity of the diffraction pattern since the destroyed light waves' amplitudes do not contribute to the total light intensity of the diffraction pattern. Every point of the diffraction pattern is formed by the same number of interfering of light waves. More than 80% of the small rectangular aperture diffraction pattern is composed of dark areas which would result in more than a 60% reduction in the total light intensity of the diffraction pattern yet experimentally, the total light intensity that enters a small rectangular aperture (dt = 1s) is equal to the total light intensity of the diffraction pattern.


Fresnel is using spherical waves formed along the wave AMI to derive the diffraction intensity equation. The interfering spherical waves' maximum amplitudes are dependent on the inverse of the distance. The intensity formed by the spherical waves is dependent on I = (U)2 where U is the equation of the spherical waves U = A cos(kr)/r. Using the distance r1 = .1 mm where the spherical waves' maximum amplitudes are formed near the wave AMI, and, the distance of r2 = 5 cm that represents the distance from the wave AMI to the diffraction screen. The maximum total light intensity formed by the spherical waves just after leaving the wave AMI is I = [A cos(kr)/r]2 = B/(.0001)2 = B(108), and the total intensity at the diffraction screen is I = [A cos(kr)/r]2 = B/(.05)2 = B(2.5 x 104). The total light intensity that exists the aperture, at the diffraction screen, decreases by the factor of 4,000 using Fresnel's spherical wave diffraction mechanism.
n***@gmail.com
2017-12-02 21:57:16 UTC
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§ 4. Oested Induction



In Oersted's paper, "Experiments on the Effects of a Current of Electricity on the Magnetic Needle" (1820), Oersted discovered the induction effect.



"The uniting wire may change its place, either towards the east or west, provided it continue parallel to the needle, without any other change of the effect than in respect to its quantity. Hence the effect cannot be ascribed to attraction ; for the same pole of the magnetic needle, which approaches the uniting wire, while placed on its east side, ought to recede from it when on the west side, if these declinations depended on attractions and repulsions. The uniting conductor may consist of several wires, or metallic ribbons, connected together. The nature of the metal does not alter the effect, but merely the quantity. Wires of platinum, gold, silver, brass, iron, ribbons of lead and tin,a mass of mercury, were employed with equal success. The conductor does not lose its effect, though interrupted by water, unless the interruption amounts to several inches in length." (Oersted. p. 274)


"6. About twenty-six feet of copper wire one twentieth of an inch in diameter were wound round a cylinder of wood as a helix, the different spires of which were prevented from touching by a thin interposed twine. This helix was covered with calico, and then a second wire applied in the same manner. In this way twelve helices were superposed, each containing an average length of wire of twenty-seven feet, and all in the same direction. The first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh of these helices were connected at their extremities end to end, so as to form one helix; the others were connected in a similar manner; and thus two principal helices were produced, closely interposed, having the same direction, not touching anywhere, and each containing one hundred and fifty-five feet in length of wire.

7. One of these helices was connected with a galvanometer, the other with a voltaic battery of ten pairs of plates four inches square, with double coppers and well charged; yet not the slightest sensible reflection of the galvanometer-needle could be observed." (Faraday, First Series).


Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted (1820) discovered induction in an experiment where a needle is deflected by a current wire's external magnetic field (Oersted, p. 274). Ampere (1926) observed a force between two current wires formed by external magnetic fields (Ampere, fig 14, Plate 2). Lenz was the first to describe the mutual induction of two wire helix. Lenz's induction paper was initially rejected for publication in 1830 and was later published in 1835 with the addition of the magnetic flux. Henry used the induction coil to form a solenoid that resulted in the invention of the door bell and its distance cousin the telegraph. The units of an induction coil is named a Henry (H). Faraday (1831) describes the mutual induction effect using Lenz's wire helix induction effect that magnetic flux induces a current in the adjacent coil.
n***@gmail.com
2017-12-04 21:24:23 UTC
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§ 14. Einstein Electrodynamics





In Einstein's paper, "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" (1905), Einstein states the luminiferous ether is superfluous.


"The introduction of a “luminiferous ether” will prove to be superfluous inasmuch as the view here to be developed will not require an “absolutely stationary space” provided with special properties, nor assign a velocity-vector to a point of the empty space in which electromagnetic processes take place." (Einstein2, Intro).


Einstein statement that the ether is superfluous conflicts with Huygens-Fresnel wave theory of light that is based on light waves formed by the motion of an ether, composed of matter, that is currently used in college text books.


.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................


Einstein is justifying Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light by altering the coordinate system of Maxwell's equations.


"§ 6. Transformation of the Maxwell-Hertz equations for empty space. On the nature of the electromotive forces that arise upon motion in a magnetic field.


Let the Maxwell-Hertz equations for empty space be valid for the system at rest K, so that we have



dX/dt = dN/dy - dM/dz.................................................38



dY/dt = dL/dz - dN/dx..................................................39



dZ/dt = dM/dx - dL/dy..................................................40


......................................................................................



dL/dt = dY/dz - dZ/dy...................................................41



dM/dt = dZ/dx - dX/dz..................................................42



dN/dt = dX/dy - dY/dx..................................................43



where (X,Y,Z) denotes the vector of the electric force, and (L,M,N) that of the magnetic force." (Einstein2, § 6).




β = 1/(1 - v2/c2)1/2........................................................44




Applying equation 44 to the coordinate system of Maxwell's equations,




"X' = X.......................................... L' = L...................................................................45a,b


Y' = β[Y - (v/c)N].......................... M'= β[M + (v/c)Z]..................................................46a,b


Z' = β[Z + (v/c)M],..........................N' = β[N - (v/c)Y]"................................................47a,b



(Einstein2, § 6). Einstein justifies Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light by altering the coordinate system of Maxwell's equations but altering the dimensions of Maxwell's equations does not change the fact that Maxwell's equations are derived using Faraday's induction effect that is not luminous nor is induction an ionization or particle effect.




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n***@gmail.com
2017-12-04 23:10:38 UTC
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I have come to accept that everyone does not except my work that theoretical physics including Einstein relativity is just one big fat hoax which begins with the wave theory of light and is extended with Einstein's SR and GR. One technique that is used to justify the wave theory of light and Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light is ignorance of the content of the original papers. It's just surprising to me that physicists some with phd do not know certain basic fact regarding Einstein relativity. For instant that general relativity is based on Maxwell's theory (Maxwell's equations) and that general relativity is basically gravitational physics and special relativity is an optical theory. Now, when I see this thing (remains me of a dog turd)called space-time that is being used to represent the structure of an entity that violates experimental evidence. According to the laws of physicists, if you cannot explain something just manipulate the coordinate system and change the variables and conceal it with incomprehensible mathematical horse shit but the problem with space-time is that it is a coordinate system not a structure. When you use space-time it represents the x,y,z dimensions as the space and t as the time. So the question when space-time is used is what is the structure? The reason that this theory exists is because Einstein does not specifically state that the gravitational waves are electromagnetic waves since he cannot but he (Einstein) is stating "gravitational-field" more than 10 times in the 1916 GR paper yet does not specify electromagnetic gravitational waves since obviously Maxwell's theory is not a gravity theory. One can never, never trust a physicist on his word. There is absolutely no relationship between gravity and Faraday's induction effect of Maxwell's theory which is the reason for the space-time to avoid explaining how an electromagnetic field structure that is not gravitational is used to represent gravitational waves but with no structure and only space-time coordinate system to represent the gravitational wave is similar to the emperor without clothes. If one where to even slightly think about the problem. One would ask "What is the relationship between electromagnetic gravitational waves and Newton's gravity equations?" ------------Absolutely Nothing. Inertia is only in one direction so you are going to have a difficult time explain gravity's attractive forces using gravitational waves but gravitational waves are not the same as gravity waves. Denying your main purpose is a theoretical physics stand by.

"The Emperor's New Clothes" (Danish: Kejserens nye Klæder) is a short tale written by Danish author Hans Christian Andersen, about two weavers who promise an emperor a new suit of clothes that they say is invisible to those who are unfit for their positions, stupid, or incompetent. When the emperor parades before his subjects in his new clothes, no one dares to say that they do not see any suit of clothes on him for fear that they will be seen as "unfit for their positions, stupid, or incompetent". Finally, a child cries out, "But he isn't wearing anything at all!"
JanPB
2017-12-04 23:31:45 UTC
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I have come to accept that everyone does not except my work that theoretical physics including Einstein relativity is just one big fat hoax which begins with the wave theory of light and is extended with Einstein's SR and GR. One technique that is used to justify the wave theory of light and Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light is ignorance of the content of the original papers. It's just surprising to me that physicists some with phd do not know certain basic fact regarding Einstein relativity. For instant that general relativity is based on Maxwell's theory (Maxwell's equations) and that general relativity is basically gravitational physics and special relativity is an optical theory. Now, when I see this thing (remains me of a dog turd)called space-time that is being used to represent the structure of an entity that violates experimental evidence. According to the laws of physicists, if you cannot explain something just manipulate the coordinate system and change the variables and conceal it with incomprehensible mathematical horse shit but the problem with space-time is that it is a coordinate system not a structure. When you use space-time it represents the x,y,z dimensions as the space and t as the time. So the question when space-time is used is what is the structure? The reason that this theory exists is because Einstein does not specifically state that the gravitational waves are electromagnetic waves since he cannot but he (Einstein) is stating "gravitational-field" more than 10 times in the 1916 GR paper yet does not specify electromagnetic gravitational waves since obviously Maxwell's theory is not a gravity theory. One can never, never trust a physicist on his word. There is absolutely no relationship between gravity and Faraday's induction effect of Maxwell's theory which is the reason for the space-time to avoid explaining how an electromagnetic field structure that is not gravitational is used to represent gravitational waves but with no structure and only space-time coordinate system to represent the gravitational wave is similar to the emperor without clothes. If one where to even slightly think about the problem. One would ask "What is the relationship between electromagnetic gravitational waves and Newton's gravity equations?" ------------Absolutely Nothing. Inertia is only in one direction so you are going to have a difficult time explain gravity's attractive forces using gravitational waves but gravitational waves are not the same as gravity waves. Denying your main purpose is a theoretical physics stand by.
"The Emperor's New Clothes" (Danish: Kejserens nye Klæder) is a short tale written by Danish author Hans Christian Andersen, about two weavers who promise an emperor a new suit of clothes that they say is invisible to those who are unfit for their positions, stupid, or incompetent. When the emperor parades before his subjects in his new clothes, no one dares to say that they do not see any suit of clothes on him for fear that they will be seen as "unfit for their positions, stupid, or incompetent". Finally, a child cries out, "But he isn't wearing anything at all!"
Gobbledygook.

--
Jan
Lara Ashline
2017-12-08 14:09:50 UTC
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incompetent". Finally, a child cries out, "But he isn't wearing
anything at all!"
Gobbledygook.
You love yourself a bit too much.
n***@gmail.com
2017-12-08 22:48:03 UTC
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incompetent". Finally, a child cries out, "But he isn't wearing
anything at all!"
Gobbledygook.
You love yourself a bit too much.
Is that why I have a cold?
JanPB
2017-12-08 23:58:59 UTC
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incompetent". Finally, a child cries out, "But he isn't wearing
anything at all!"
Gobbledygook.
You love yourself a bit too much.
I simply mark certain posts according to certain criteria as follows (typically):

- gobbledygook, OR
- not even wrong, OR
- false.

--
Jan
n***@gmail.com
2017-12-05 21:51:16 UTC
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Hello everyone,


Now lets have some more fun since physics is fun and that's why we do physics since it is so fun. I picked two physics text books one by James S. Walker (2010) and the other by Cutnell & Johnson (2009) and I am going to look at Huygens's principle. In Walker's book he states that Huygens principle is describing wave interference formed by two slits (p. 980, fig 28-4) which is patently incorrect. Walker has gotten Huygens principle all wrong. Huygens only describes the propagation of light and definitely in interference. In Cutnell & Johnson, they also are using Huygens' principle to represent diffraction which is patently incorrect. C&J on p. 854 are doing something very odd since instead of using spherical waves they are using light rays to represent the diffraction effect of light which conflicts with Fresnel's diffraction mechanism that is based on interfering spherical waves. What is really amusing and funny is that C&J are stating that when the light rays are parallel that it is Fraunhofer diffraction and when the light ray are not parallel its Fresnel's diffraction (p. 854) which is just so funny. How can the light rays be only parallel when light disperses. C&J are arbitrarily manipulating Fresnel's diffraction mechanism to a meaningless mechanism that does not represent Fresnel's diffraction mechanism that is the foundation of the wave theory of light. Both Walker and C&J have nothing in their books regarding the optical ether or aether but C&J does describe Michelson's experiment and states that the experiment is used to measure the wavelength of light but we all know that that is patently incorrect since the purpose of Michelson's experiment is to test for Fresnel's ether, composed of matter. I says so right in the title of Michelson's paper.



Michelson, Albert. The Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether. American Journal of Science. 22:120-129, 1881.
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2017-12-06 20:36:38 UTC
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The more victories. The more changes that evil will prevail.
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2017-12-06 21:16:51 UTC
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____________________________________________



"TABLE 5.1 FREQUENCY BANDS FOR GRAVITATIONAL WAVES




Designation..............................................Frequency...............................Typical sources


Extremely low frequency.......................10-7 to 10-4 Hz..........................Slow binaries, black hole (>108 Mo)

Very low frequency................................10-4 to 10-1 Hz.........................Fast binaries, black holes (<108 Mo), white-dwarf vibrations

Low frequency.......................................10-1 to 102 Hz..........................Binary pulsars, black holes (<105 Mo)

Medium frequency.................................102 to 105 Hz...........................Supernovas, pulsar vibrations

High frequency......................................105 to 108 Hz............................Man-made?

Very high frequency..............................108 to 1011 Hz..........................Blackbody, cosmological?" (Ohanian, p. 242).


"The most promising frequency band is that of medium frequency, from 102 to 105 Hz. There are several probable sources of gravitational waves in this band and, fortunately, detectors that respond to waves in this band can be built. There is little doubt that gravitational waves are incident on the Earth; the question is, can we build a detector sufficiently sensitive to feel them?" (Ohanian, p. 242).



"Figure 1 illustrates the basic concept of how a Michelson interferometer is used to measure a GW strain. The challenge is to make the instrument sufficiently sensitive: at the targeted strain sensitivity of 10-21, the resulting arm length change is only ~10-18 m, a thousand times smaller than the diameter of a proton." (LIGO Collaboration, § 4).


Wheeler's gravity wave that has a frequency of 10-7 Hz forms a wavelength of 1015 meters that is more than a light year in length, and a gravity wave with a frequency of 104 Hz represents a wavelength of 104 m which represent a range of the gravity waves' wavelengths of 19 orders of magnitude. Also, the Caltech-MIT LIGO detected celestial gravitational waves using Michelson's experiment but the LIGO is detecting an interferometer's armature length contraction of 10-18 m which is not physically possible since the change in length of 10-18 m is shorter than the radius of a subatomic particle.



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n***@gmail.com
2017-12-06 21:46:24 UTC
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During the Apollo 11 lander descent from the moon's orbit to the moon's surface, the moon's gravity causes the lander to accelerate to a velocity of 550 mph towards the moon's surface. When the velocity of the lander reaches 550 mph the lander's rocket engine is ignited and produces a thrust of 10,000 lb, reducing the lander's velocity, until the lander nears the moon's surface when the thrust is reduced to 3,000 lb. At the moon's surface, the lander's rocket engine's thrust would result in the production of rocket smoke yet the lunar descent film does not depict any rocket smoke. The lack of the moon's atmosphere is used to justify the lack of the rocket smoke but the production of the rocket smoke is caused by the combustion of the Aerozine rocket fuel and the oxidizer which would result in the formation of rocket smoke. The decent film of the lunar lander shows the lander propagating in a horizontal direction that would require a thrust in the horizontal direction yet the lander would experience a change in the center of gravity because of the fuel being consumed during the landing which would shift the center of gravity and render it nearly impossible for the horizontal motion of the lander during the descent. The Bell Aerosystems Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) is used to justify that the lander propagates in the horizontal direction but the main engine of the LLRV is a jet engine that does not function on the moon The descent film depicts the Apollo astronauts having a conversation that is being recorded in the descent film but rocket engine would produce a roar which would prevent the audio feed of the Apollo astronauts have their conversation. The landing of the Apollo 11 astronauts would be a life and death experience yet the Apollo descent lander films do not depict the intensity that would be expected in such a dangerous endeavor. The photographic images of the Apollo 11 lander does not depict a blast zone beneath the exhaust nozzle of the lander caused by the 3,000 lb rocket thrust during the final descent at the moon's surface. The argument that the 3,000 lb thrust is not significant enough to produce a blast zone beneath the lander is used to justify the lack of the blast zone yet a Lear jet engine is rated at 3,500 lb thrust. The 3,000 lb rocket thrust would result in a blast zone beneath the Apollo 11 lunar lander yet the Apollo 11 photographs (fig 23) show absolutely no disturbance of the fine particle matter in the area beneath the lunar lander.




In the Apollo 11 photographs, the shadows of the lunar objects are pointing in different directions which suggest that the Apollo 11 photographs were manufactured. The variation in the contour of the lunar surface is used to explain the multiple directions of the lunar shadows but in another Apollo 11 photograph taken on the surface of the moon, two objects are located on a level lunar surface and are still forming shadows in different directions which negates the contour surface argument. In an on camera interview after the Apollo 11 mission Neil Armstrong stated that he did not recall the stars of the celestial universe while on the surface of the moon. The Apollo 11 mission astronauts appear extremely disturbed in the interview when the question was asked regarding the absents of the stars in the photographs taken on the surface of the moon. Neil Armstrong never gave an on camera interview after his initial interview that included the question regarding why no stars appear in any of the Apollo 11 photographs. Only 20 photographs of the Apollo 11 lunar landing were released. NASA justifies the lunar landing using the Caltech-MIT lunar reflector that was placed on the surface of the moon during the Apollo 11 mission but the Hubble telescope (.1 arcsec) that is more than six times more powerful than the LICK telescope (.6 arsec) cannot view the lunar lander on the surface of the moon yet the LICK telescope is detecting an intensity of the lunar reflector that has an area of one square meter. The Caltech-MIT lunar reflector experiment is based on the assumption that a laser beam width does not increases while propagating to the moon and back! A radio signal that originates from the moon cannot be detected on the earth because the intensity of a radio signal is dependent on the inverse of the second order of the distance I = A cos(kr)/r2 . After propagating the distance of 50,000 miles (r = 8 x 107 m) from the moon a 20 kW radio signal would diminish by a factor of 10-14, a 20 kW radio signal produced on the surface of the moon would be less than the intensity of a cell phone after propagating a distance of 50,000 miles and at 100,000 miles from the moon, the radio signal would disappear yet the moon is located 238,000 miles from the earth which would result in a decrease in the intensity of a factor of 10-16. It is questionable how NASA communicated with the Apollo missions using radio waves. In the film of an Apollo 11 astronaut placing the American flag on the surface of the moon, the flag appears to be flapping similar to a flag blowing in the wind on the surface of the earth yet the surface of the moon has no atmosphere that could form the waving of the flag with the intensity depicted in the Apollo 11 film. It is argued that the vibration of the flag pole when the flag pole was hampered into the lunar surface causes the flag to wave but the intensity of the flag's motion in the horizontal direction suggests that the Apollo 11 mission flag waving was produced by a cooling fan in a movie studio.




The amount of fuel required to land and ascent the lander onto and from the surface of the moon is calculated. The amount of fuel required to launch a payload from the surface of the earth into the earth's orbit is approximately equal to the amount of fuel required in descending the same payload onto the surface of the earth from the earth's orbit using a descent rocket re-entry; consequently, the fuel load required to descent a payload from the moon's orbit to the surface of the moon can be calculated using an earth base rocket launch by compensating for the moon's gravity. The total weight of the Apollo 11 lunar lander (dry) is 15,083 lb. Using the moon gravity of .166 g the lunar lander weight would be comparable to
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2017-12-07 00:03:22 UTC
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f
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2017-12-07 01:09:42 UTC
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Also, the Caltech-MIT LIGO (2017) detected celestial gravitational waves using Michelson's experiment but the LIGO is detecting the gravitational wave using an interferometer's armature length contraction of 10-18 m which is not physically possible since the change in length of 10-18 m is shorter than the radius of a subatomic particle. The LIGO experiment is similar to Cavendish's experiment that detected a force of 2 μg yet the minimum weight uncertainty in 1797 was 1 mg and even today no force is detected using Cavendish's lead spheres.
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2017-12-07 01:17:52 UTC
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People like Peotvo must have forceD the 2016 LIGO to explain the 10^-21 strain and in 2017 LIGO states the length variation is 10^18 m. wow!
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2017-12-08 22:50:57 UTC
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Would you like my autograph and a picture? It could become priceless after I become famous.
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2017-12-09 02:46:34 UTC
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Copernicus is given credit for introducing the theory that the sun is the center of the solar system yet Shatir (b. 1304) a Syrian Muslim was the first to introduce the sun centered theory in a paper written in Latin. Are Muslim must smarter than Christians? I cannot think of anything greater than the Sun center theory. Muslim's science rock compared to the 10^-18 m LIGO!!!!!
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2017-12-09 03:31:46 UTC
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In the CERN (2017) particle physics experiment, two hadron beams are collided to form subatomic particles but the protons of the hadron beam that have the same charge would limit the concentration of the protons within the proton beam since like charges of the protons would repel. Also, when the protons interact during the collision it is more likely that the protons would repel rather then collide and form subatomic particles. The high energy protons of the proton beam are propagating at the velocity of .999c that energy can cut steel which would make it very difficult to contain the CERN hadron beam within the 27 km circular vacuum tube without the protons producing a hole in the vacuum tube. The high energy protons that are propagating through the circular accelerator vacuum tube would have the energy to cut steel which can be tested by placing a .1 thick steel plate in that path of the accelerated proton beam but when the steel test plate is placed in the path of the proton beam (dt = 20 s) a hole is not formed in the steel test plate. The ATLAS experiment and Compact Muon Solenoid are the detectors that are used to detect the subatomic particles where the Compact Muon Solenoid is a massive metal structure that weighs 14,000 tons. Ha. Ha.
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2017-12-09 03:32:56 UTC
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In the CERN (2017) particle physics experiment, two hadron beams are collided to form subatomic particles but the protons of the hadron beam that have the same charge would limit the concentration of the protons within the proton beam since like charges of the protons would repel. Also, when the protons interact during the collision it is more likely that the protons would repel rather then collide and form subatomic particles. The high energy protons of the proton beam are propagating at the velocity of .999c that energy can cut steel which would make it very difficult to contain the CERN hadron beam within the 27 km circular vacuum tube without the protons producing a hole in the vacuum tube. The high energy protons that are propagating through the circular accelerator vacuum tube would have the energy to cut steel which can be tested by placing a .1 thick steel plate in that path of the accelerated proton beam but when the steel test plate is placed in the path of the proton beam (dt = 20 s) a hole is not formed in the steel test plate. The ATLAS experiment and Compact Muon Solenoid are the detectors that are used to detect the subatomic particles where the Compact Muon Solenoid is a massive metal structure that weighs 14,000 tons. Ha. Ha.
n***@gmail.com
2017-12-09 19:19:43 UTC
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"TABLE 5.1 FREQUENCY BANDS FOR GRAVITATIONAL WAVES




Designation..............................................Frequency...............................Typical sources


Extremely low frequency.......................10-7 to 10-4 Hz..........................Slow binaries, black hole (>108 Mo)

Very low frequency................................10-4 to 10-1 Hz.........................Fast binaries, black holes (<108 Mo), white-dwarf vibrations

Low frequency.......................................10-1 to 102 Hz..........................Binary pulsars, black holes (<105 Mo)

Medium frequency.................................102 to 105 Hz...........................Supernovas, pulsar vibrations

High frequency......................................105 to 108 Hz............................Man-made?

Very high frequency..............................108 to 1011 Hz..........................Blackbody, cosmological?" (Ohanian, p. 242).


"The most promising frequency band is that of medium frequency, from 102 to 105 Hz. There are several probable sources of gravitational waves in this band and, fortunately, detectors that respond to waves in this band can be built. There is little doubt that gravitational waves are incident on the Earth; the question is, can we build a detector sufficiently sensitive to feel them?" (Ohanian, p. 242).



"The LIGO sites each operate a single Advanced LIGO detector [33], a modified Michelson interferometer (see Fig. 3) that measures gravitational-wave strain as a difference in length of its orthogonal arms." (Abbott, p. 061102-3).


"The undulatory theory of light assumes the existence of a medium called the ether, whose vibrations produce the phenomena of heat and light, and which is supposed to fill all space. According to Fresnel, the ether, which is enclosed in optical media, partakes of the motion of these media, to an extent depending on their indices of refraction. For air, this motion would be but a small fraction of that of the air itself and will be neglected." (Michelson, p. 120).

Wheeler's gravitational waves have the frequency of 10-7 Hz that forms a wavelength of 1015 meters that is more than a light year in length, and a gravity wave with a frequency of 104 Hz represents a wavelength of 104 m which represent a range of the gravitational waves' wavelengths of 19 orders of magnitude which is an incredibly large range of wavelengths. In 2016, LIGO is depicting gravitational waves with Fresnel's ether, composed of matter, using Michelson experiment, yet vacuum proves the ether and the gravitational waves do not physically exist. Michelson's experiment (1881) is an ether experiment which is represented in the title of Michelson's paper "The Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether" and Michelson is testing form the existence of Fresnel's ether, composed of matter (Michelson, p. 120).



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2017-12-09 19:21:30 UTC
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it should be "vacuum that is void of matter"
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2017-12-09 22:19:03 UTC
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aa kkdf
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2017-12-10 02:41:36 UTC
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The Lord don't accept steps backwards for long.
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2017-12-10 18:47:50 UTC
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love your cat
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2017-12-10 20:26:08 UTC
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In 2016, LIGO stellar gravitational waves that are formed by the merging of two black holes detected using Michelson's interferometer based on Einstein's general relativity.



"On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0 × 10-21." (Abbott, Abstract)...




"The LIGO sites each operate a single Advanced LIGO detector [33], a modified Michelson interferometer (see Fig. 3) that measures gravitational-wave strain as a difference in length of its orthogonal arms." (Abbott, p. 061102-3)..



"The LIGO sites each operate a single Advanced LIGO detector [33], a modified Michelson interferometer (see Fig. 3) that measures gravitational-wave strain as a difference in length of its orthogonal arms. Each arm is formed by two mirrors, acting as test masses, separated by Lx = Ly = L = 4 km. A passing gravitational wave effectively alters the arm lengths such that the measured difference is ΔL(t) = δLx − δLy = h(t)L, where h is the gravitational-wave strain amplitude projected onto the detector. This differential length variation alters the phase difference between the two light fields returning to the beam splitter, transmitting an optical signal proportional to the gravitational-wave strain to the output photodetector. (Abbott, p. 061102-3).



The stellar gravitational waves are producing a change in the armature length of Michelson's interferometer but the LIGO does not indicate the magnitude of the length variation that is being measured.



..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................




In 2017, the LIGO was used to detect gravitational waves of a pulsar that produces a 10^18 m change in the armature length.



"In about 300 million years, the PSR 1913 + 16 orbit will decrease to the point where the pair coalesces into a single compact object, a process that will produce directly detectable GWs. In the meantime, the direct detection of GWs will require similarly strong sources—extremely large masses moving with large accelerations in strong gravitational fields." (LIGO Collaboration, § 2).



"Figure 1 illustrates the basic concept of how a Michelson interferometer is used to measure a GW strain. The challenge is to make the instrument sufficiently sensitive: at the targeted strain sensitivity of 10-21 m, the resulting arm length change is only ~10-18 m, a thousand times smaller than the diameter of a proton." (LIGO Collaboration, § 4).




It is not physically possible to determine the length change of 10-18 m which proves the LIGO is an experimental hoax.





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2017-12-11 19:58:32 UTC
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LIGO stellar electromagnetic gravitational waves that are formed by the merging of two black holes are detected using Michelson's laser interferometer based on Einstein's general relativity. .,


"On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0 × 10-21." (Abbott, Abstract, p. 061102-1).**



"It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole." (Abbott, Abstract, p. 061102-1).*



"In 1916, the year after the final formulation of the field equations of general relativity, Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves. He found that the linearized weak-field equations had wave solutions: transverse waves of spatial strain that travel at the speed of light, generated by time variations of the mass quadrupole moment of the source [1,2]." (Abbott, Abstract, p. 061102-1).**



"The LIGO sites each operate a single Advanced LIGO
detector [33], a modified Michelson interferometer (see
Fig. 3) that measures gravitational-wave strain as a difference in length of its orthogonal arms." (Abbott, p. 061102-3).**


"The LIGO sites each operate a single Advanced LIGO detector [33], a modified Michelson interferometer (see Fig. 3) that measures gravitational-wave strain as a difference in length of its orthogonal arms. Each arm is formed by two mirrors, acting as test masses, separated by Lx = Ly = L = 4 km. A passing gravitational wave effectively alters the arm lengths such that the measured difference is ΔL(t) = δLx − δLy = h(t)L, where h is the gravitational-wave strain amplitude projected onto the detector. This differential length variation alters the phase difference between the two light fields returning to the beam splitter, transmitting an optical signal proportional to the gravitational-wave strain to the output photodetector. (Abbott, p. 061102-3).>>>




Gravitational physics is based on Einstein's general relativity that uses Maxwell's equations which are derived using Faraday's induction effects that are not gravitational and the magnitude of the length variation that produces the positive result of the LIGO experiment is not indicated. Also, there is a contradiction that is also part of Einstein's special and general relativity where in the LIGO the gravitational waves alters the length of Michelson's armature which implies an interaction of a force affecting the armature but the contraction of the length of the armature is representing transformation based on Lorentz's theory and the tangential velocity formed by the earth's daily and earth motion's effect on the armature's length.>><>




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In 2017, the LIGO detected electromagnetic gravitational waves produced by a pulsar using Michelson's experiment.



"The prediction of gravitational waves (GWs), oscillations in the space–time metric that propagate at the speed of light, is one of the most profound differences between Einstein's general theory of relativity and the Newtonian theory of gravity that it replaced." (LIGO Collaboration, § 2).>>>



"In about 300 million years, the PSR 1913 + 16 orbit will decrease to the point where the pair coalesces into a single compact object, a process that will produce directly detectable GWs. In the meantime, the direct detection of GWs will require similarly strong sources—extremely large masses moving with large accelerations in strong gravitational fields." (LIGO Collaboration, § 2).>>




"The essence of general relativity is that mass and energy produce a curvature of four-dimensional space-time, and that matter moves in response to this curvature. The Einstein field equations prescribe the interaction between mass and space-time curvature, much as Maxwell's equations prescribe the relationship between electric charge and electromagnetic fields. Just as electromagnetic waves are time dependent vacuum solutions to Maxwell's equations, gravitational waves are time dependent vacuum solutions to the field equations." (LIGO Collaboration, § 2)....



"Gravitational radiation is produced by oscillating multipole moments of the mass distribution of a system. The principle of mass conservation rules out monopole radiation, and the principles of linear and angular momentum conservation rule out gravitational dipole radiation. Quadrupole radiation is the lowest allowed form and is thus usually the dominant form." (LIGO Collaboration, § 2)...



"As illustrated in figure 1, the oscillating quadrupolar strain pattern of a GW is well matched by a Michelson interferometer, which makes a very sensitive comparison of the lengths of its two orthogonal arms. LIGO utilizes three specialized Michelson interferometers, located at two sites (see figure 2): an observatory on the Hanford site in Washington houses two interferometers, the 4 km-long H1 and 2 km-long H2 detectors; and an observatory in Livingston Parish, Louisiana, houses the 4 km-long L1 detector." (LIGO Collaboration, § 3)...




"Figure 1 illustrates the basic concept of how a Michelson interferometer is used to measure a GW strain. The challenge is to make the instrument sufficiently sensitive: at the targeted strain sensitivity of 10−21, the resulting arm length change is only ~10−18 m, a thousand times smaller than the diameter of a proton." (LIGO Collaboration, § 4).--



In 2017, the Caltech-MIT LIGO detected celestial electromagnetic gravitational waves that originate from the merging of two 1.3 billion light year blackholes using Einstein's general relativity and Michelson's interferometer but Einstein's general relativity uses Maxwell's equations that are derived using Faraday's induction effect that is not a gravitational effect, and the LIGO experiment is based on Michelson's experiment but Michelson's interferometer is not a radio antenna that can be used to detect electromagnetic gravitational waves nor is Michelson's interferometer a telescope. The LIGO interferometer's armature contraction represented with Einstein's general relativity based on Lorentz's theory and Michelson's experiment is based on an interference effect that is formed by the motion of Fresnel's ether, composed of matter, that does not physically exist (vacuum). The 2017 LIGO gravitational wave mechanism describes the interferometer's armature length variation of 10-18 m caused the amplitude (strain) of the gravitational but the change in the length of 10-10 m is unrealistic which is short than the diameter of a subatomic particle and the LIGO does not present photographs of the interferometer's interference effect that corresponds with Michelson's experiment which represents a symmetric arrangement of fringes. Einstein's general relativity is based on a constant magnitude of the translational velocity that is used to contract the length of the interferometer's armature. Using the armature length of L = 4,000 m and Lβ = L' where β = (1 - v2/c2)1/2 the variable L' represents the contracted interferometer armature length which would require a translational velocity v of less than 1 m/s to form a armature contraction of 10-18 m yet the minimum value of the translational velocity v formed by the earth's daily motion is 462 m/s. In addition, the LIGO experiment is based on a constant magnitude of the translational velocity but Einstein's translationtal velocity formed by the earth's daily and yearly motions is not constant. At the surface of the earth, for the time of 6:00 pm, the magnitude of the earth's tangential velocity vector v that forms Einstein's translation velocity is 462 m/s (fig 7) and increases to 5,077 m/s at 7:00 pm. At midnight, the translational velocity is 30,462 m/s. The magnitude of Einstein's translational velocity increases from 462 m/s to 30,462 m/s (6:00 pm - 12:00 am) yet the LIGO experiment is based on the constant magnitude of Einstein's translational velocity to form the 10-18 m contraction of the armature length L'. .




Time velocity ..

___________________________


6:00 pm . 462 m/s .


7:00 pm . 5,077 m/s


8:00 pm . 10,154 m/s


9:00 pm . 15,231 m/s


10:00 pm. 20,308 m/s


11:00 pm . 25,385 m/s


12:00 am . 30,462 m/s







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Abbott, B. P. Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger. Physical Review Letters. 116, 061102. 2016
n***@gmail.com
2017-12-12 17:47:39 UTC
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The Caltech-MIT LIGO detected stellar black hole gravitational waves using relativity to alter the armature length of Michelson interferometer but the LIGO experiment is based on a constant magnitude of the translational velocity but Einstein's translationtal velocity formed by the earth's daily and yearly motions is not constant. At the surface of the earth, for the time of 6:00 pm, the magnitude of the earth's tangential velocity vector that forms Einstein's translation velocity is 462 m/s (fig 7) and increases to 5,077 m/s at 7:00 pm. At midnight, the translational velocity is 30,462 m/s. The magnitude of Einstein's translational velocity increases from 462 m/s to 30,462 m/s (6:00 pm - 12:00 am) yet the LIGO experiment is based on the constant magnitude of Einstein's translational velocity to form the alteration of the armature length to justify the existence of LIGO gravitational waves.
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2017-12-13 18:34:05 UTC
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The Caltech-MIT LIGO detected stellar black hole gravitational waves using relativity to alter the armature length of Michelson interferometer but the LIGO experiment is based on a constant magnitude of Einstein's relativistic translational velocity but Einstein's translationtal velocity formed by the earth's daily and yearly motions is not constant. At the surface of the earth, for the time of 6:00 pm, the magnitude of the earth's tangential velocity vector that forms Einstein's translation velocity is 462 m/s (fig 7) and increases to 5,077 m/s at 7:00 pm. At midnight, the translational velocity is 30,462 m/s. The magnitude of Einstein's translational velocity increases from 462 m/s to 30,462 m/s (6:00 pm - 12:00 am) yet the LIGO experiment is based on the constant magnitude of Einstein's translational velocity to form the alteration of the armature length that forms the signal used to justify the existence of gravitational waves.
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2017-12-14 18:54:07 UTC
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The Caltech-MIT LIGO detected stellar black hole gravitational waves using relativity to alter the armature length of Michelson interferometer but the LIGO experiment is based on a constant magnitude of Einstein's relativistic translational velocity since a varying translational velocity would result in a varying length of the armature of the LIGO interferometer, as time increases but Einstein's translationtal velocity formed by the earth's daily and yearly motions is not constant. At the surface of the earth, for the time of 6:00 pm, the magnitude of the earth's tangential velocity vector that forms Einstein's translation velocity is 462 m/s (fig 7) and increases to 5,077 m/s at 7:00 pm. At midnight, the translational velocity is 30,462 m/s. The magnitude of Einstein's translational velocity increases from 462 m/s to 30,462 m/s (6:00 pm - 12:00 am) yet the LIGO experiment is based on the constant magnitude of Einstein's translational velocity to form the alteration of the armature length that forms the signal used to justify the existence of gravitational waves.
David (Kronos Prime) Fuller
2018-01-05 17:42:53 UTC
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Yeah...... that’s just Bulk Modulus & Wave Speed

But there is no medium..... no Luminiferous Aether..... (eye roll)
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2018-01-05 17:39:21 UTC
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.
David (Kronos Prime) Fuller
2018-01-05 17:44:02 UTC
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I have to go take a poop now ....
Carl Susumu
2018-01-09 22:24:30 UTC
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,
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2018-01-10 19:17:27 UTC
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.
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2018-01-10 22:59:52 UTC
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During the ostensible Apollo 11 lander descent from the moon's orbit to the surface of the moon, the lander achieves a velocity of approximately 550 mph during the descent then the lander's rocket engine is ignited and produces a thrust of 10,000 lb until the lander nears the moon's surface at which time the thrust is reduced to 3,000 lb. At the moon's surface, the lander's rocket engine's thrust would result in the formation of an enormous amount of rocket smoke yet the lunar descent film depicts a minimum amount of rocket smoke. The lack of the moon's atmosphere is used to justify the non-existence of the rocket smoke but the production of the rocket smoke is caused by the combustion of the Aerozine rocket fuel and the oxidizer (liquid oxygen) which would result in the formation of an enormous amount of rocket smoke. The analyses of a video of a rocket engine ignition and burn shows the production of an enormous amount of rocket smoke being emitted by the rocket engine which is not depicted in the Apollo 11 lander descent film. In addition, the decent film of the lunar lander shows the lander propagating in a horizontal direction that would require a thrust in the horizontal direction and a constant center of gravity of the lander yet the lander would experience an enormous change in the center of gravity caused by the fuel being consumed during the landing which would shift the center of gravity and render it nearly impossible for the horizontal motion of the lander during the descent depicted in the lander descent film. The Bell Aerosystems Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) that propagates in the horizontal direction is used to justify the lander propagating in the horizontal direction during the lunar descent but the LLRV main engine is a jet that would not function at the moon's surface since the formation of a jet engine's thrust requires an atmosphere that the moon lacks. Also, the descent film depicts the Apollo astronauts having a conversation that is being recorded in the descent film but rocket engine would produce a roar which would prevent the audio feed of the Apollo astronauts have their conversation recorded in the Apollo 11 landing film. The landing and ascent of the Apollo 11 astronauts would be a life and death experience yet the Apollo descent film does not depict the intensity that would be expected in such a dangerous endeavor. Plus, the photographic images of the Apollo 11 lander does not depict a blast zone beneath the exhaust nozzle of the lander caused by the 3,000 lb rocket thrust during the final descent to the lunar surface. The argument that the 3,000 lb thrust is not significant enough to produce a blast zone beneath the lander is used to justify the non-existence of the blast zone yet, using a jet engine analogy, a Lear jet engine is rated at 3,500 lb thrust (10 psi); consequently, the 3,000 lb rocket thrust would result in a blast zone beneath the Apollo 11 lunar lander yet the Apollo 11 photographs (fig 23) show absolutely no disturbance of the fine particle matter in the area beneath the lunar lander. Also, in the Apollo 11 photographs, the shadows of the lunar objects are pointing in different directions which suggest that the Apollo 11 photographs are fabrications. The variation in the contour of the lunar surface is used to explain the multiple directions of the lunar shadows but in another Apollo 11 photograph taken on the surface of the moon, two objects are located on a level lunar surface and are still forming shadows in different directions. Also, the photograph (fig 2) shows the lander, on a nearly level surface, approximate 100 meters from two lunar rocks that produce a shadows that have a difference of 45 degrees from the shadow formed by the lander which is not physically possible and proves the lunar lander photographs were fabricated and negates the contour surface argument. In another argument, the earth's intensity is used to represent a second light source that forms the multiple directional lunar shadows but if the light intensities from the Sun and the Earth formed the lunar shadows then each lunar object would form two separate shadows yet each of the lunar objects, on the lunar surface, are forming a single shadow. Furthermore, in the lunar photograph where a small rectangular object with a small pole extending out of the top (fig 23), the cross hair is behind the rectangular object yet the cross hair is an part of a glass surface plate placed in front of the lens; consequently, all images should appear behind the cross hairs yet numerous Apollo lunar photographs show segments of the cross hairs that appear behind the image. An enhance image of the Apollo 11 mission photographs with the cross hair problem is added to the photographs is used to mitigate the cross hair problem yet the whole point in that NASA is manipulating the photographs which these enhanced photographs represent. The film of Neil Armstrong stepping on the surface of the moon has been lost and the only film of the event is that which was taken from a monitor by a TV camera. How incompetent for NASA to lose the most important scientific film in the history of man. There is also a problem regarding the angle at which the Armstrong's first step on the moon film depicts since according to NASA a camera extends from side of the lander but the film of Armstrong's first step depicts a camera that is more than 20 meter away from the lander. Not only that, NASA has lost all of the technical data that was used to construct the lander. The lunar surface during the day is 400 degrees Fahrenheit which would result in the Apollo astronaut being cooked. The argument that the space suit reflects the heat is insufficient since the surface of the moon is at 400 degrees F which would result in the astronauts to bake inside of their space suits. Plus, no photographs were taken together of the stars of the stellar universe and an Apollo 11 astronaut on the surface of the moon; in an on camera interview after the Apollo 11 mission Neil Armstrong stated that he did not recall the stars of the celestial universe while on the surface of the moon. NASA justifies the absents of stars in the Apollo photographs using the extremely high intensity of reflected Sun light from the surface of the moon prevents the stars from appearing in the Apollo 11 photographs because the short camera exposure time prevents the image of the stars to appear in the photographs. Nonetheless, the Apollo 11 mission astronauts appear extremely disturbed in the interview when the question was asked regarding the absents of the stars in the photographs taken on the surface of the moon which questioned rather the Lunar mission actually occurred. Neil Armstrong never gave an on camera interview after his initial interview that included the question regarding why no stars appear in any of the Apollo 11 photographs. Only 20 photographs of the Apollo 11 lunar landing were released. It appears extremely suspicious that such and important and expensive Apollo 11 project would only result in the release of 20 photographs from the surface of the moon since there are faults in every lunar photograph. Plus, the command model would be able to take a photograph of the surface of the moon and clearly show the astronauts and lander since a earth satellite can view the number of a license plate of a car yet the photogaphs of the lander taken by the command module is represented with a small dote. Furthermore, NASA justifies the lunar landing using the Caltech-MIT lunar reflector that was placed on the surface of the moon during the Apollo 11 mission but the Hubble telescope (.1 arcsec) that is more than six times more powerful than the LICK telescope (.6 arsec) cannot view the lunar lander on the surface of the moon yet the LICK telescope is detecting an intensity of the lunar reflector that has an area of one square meter. In addition, MIT-CALTECH scientists are assuming that a laser beam that propagates 238,000 mile to the moon and back does not disperse. There would have been no question regarding the Apollo 11 lunar landing, if NASA left a radio beacon on the surface of the moon and independent sources could verify the origin of the radio signal but a radio signal that originates from the moon cannot be detected on the earth because the intensity of a radio signal is dependent on the inverse of the second order of the distance I = A cos(kr)/r2 . After propagating the distance of 50,000 miles (r = 8 x 107 m) from the moon a 20 kW radio signal would diminish by a factor of 10-14, a 20 kW radio signal produced on the surface of the moon would be less than the intensity of a cell phone after propagating a distance of 50,000 miles and at 100,000 miles from the moon, the radio signal would disappear yet the moon is located 238,000 miles from the earth which would result in a decrease in the intensity of a factor of 10-16 . It is questionable how NASA communicated with the Apollo missions, Voyagers, and Mars probes using radio waves. Furthermore, in a film of an Apollo astronaut walking on the surface of the moon shows the placement of the American flag on the surface of the moon but in the film, the flag appears to be flapping similar to a flag blowing in the wind yet the surface of the moon has no atmosphere that could form the waving of the flag with the intensity depicted in the Apollo 11 film. It is argued that the vibration of the flag created by the astronaut placing the flag onto the moon causes the flag to wave but the intensity of the flag waving in the horizontal direction suggests that the Apollo 11 mission flag waving was created by a cooling fan within a movie studio. Also, in the Apollo 11 lunar ascent film, a camera is filming the ascent of the ascent module from the surface of the moon but it would not be physical possible to obtain the film from the surface of the moon and a 1969 satellite link would require an extra thousand pounds of equipment to transfer the film image back to the Command module. Furthermore, the amount of fuel required to land and ascent the moon is calculated. The amount of fuel required to launch a payload from the surface of the earth into the earth's orbit is approximately equal to the amount of fuel required in descending the same payload onto the surface of the earth from the earth's orbit using a descent rocket re-entry; consequently, the fuel load required to descent a payload from the moon's orbit to the surface of the moon can be calculated using an earth base rocket launch by compensating for the moon's gravity. The total weight of the Apollo 11 lunar lander (dry) is 15,083 lb. Using the moon gravity of .166 g the lunar lander weight would be comparable to
n***@gmail.com
2018-01-11 19:52:16 UTC
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Steve BH
2018-01-12 00:53:06 UTC
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"The film of Neil Armstrong stepping on the surface of the moon has been lost and the only film of the event is that which was taken from a monitor by a TV camera. How incompetent for NASA to lose the most important scientific film in the history of man."

There was never any film on Apollo 11. It was a black and white videocamera on the leg of the LM, and the primary videotape copy of the return is lost. Copies of the videotape exist.

I don't think there is a "Zapruder film" for the Moon, so technically no motion picture film footage at all. Astronauts shot still frames with a Hasselblad, or returned videocamera footage by radio. They burned out the color videcon by accidently pointing it at the Sun on Apollo 12, so there is little video of that mission. But there is lots from Apollo 14-17.
JanPB
2018-01-13 00:41:45 UTC
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Post by Steve BH
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"The film of Neil Armstrong stepping on the surface of the moon has been lost and the only film of the event is that which was taken from a monitor by a TV camera. How incompetent for NASA to lose the most important scientific film in the history of man."
There was never any film on Apollo 11. It was a black and white videocamera on the leg of the LM, and the primary videotape copy of the return is lost. Copies of the videotape exist.
And, BTW, the Soviets KGB were monitoring the Apollo missions very closely
(this fact came out after Gorbachov's perestroika had opened some of the
formerly secret programs archives), including especially the Apollo 11
mission, for obvious reasons, and they concluded (obviously) that the TV
signals DID in fact originate from the Moon (obviously). Incidentally,
can one even imagine what we'd have heard IF the Soviets discovered ANY
sort of "funny business" WHATSOEVER? The first pages of "Pravda" and
"Izvestia" would crow about this for MONTHS.
Post by Steve BH
I don't think there is a "Zapruder film" for the Moon, so technically no motion picture film footage at all. Astronauts shot still frames with a Hasselblad, or returned videocamera footage by radio. They burned out the color videcon by accidently pointing it at the Sun on Apollo 12, so there is little video of that mission. But there is lots from Apollo 14-17.
Yeah, I remember that, I was watching that transmission and remember being
really disappointed the videcon got burned early on.

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Jan
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2018-01-12 23:18:49 UTC
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During the ostensible Apollo 11 lander descent from the moon's orbit to the surface of the moon, the lander achieves a velocity of approximately 550 mph then the lander's rocket engine is ignited and produces a thrust of 10,000 lb to reduce the lander descent velocity until the lander nears the moon's surface then the thrust is reduced to 3,000 lb in its final approach to the lunar surface. It is questionable how the rocket fuel could ignite when accelerating at such a high rate causing an enormous force in the opposite direction upon the fuel during the descent. At the moon's surface, the lander's rocket engine's thrust would result in the formation of an enormous amount of rocket smoke caused by the push back of the rocket smoke from the lunar surface yet the lunar descent video depicts a minimal amount of rocket smoke. The lack of the moon's atmosphere is used to justify the non-existence of the enormous rocket smoke plume normally associated with a rocket engine burn but the production of the rocket smoke is caused by the combustion of the Aerozine rocket fuel and the dinitrogen tetroxide oxidizer which would result in the formation of an enormous amount of rocket smoke. The analyses of a video of a rocket engine ignition and burn shows the production of an enormous amount of rocket smoke being emitted by the rocket engine which is not depicted in the Apollo 11 lander descent video. It is argued that the lack of rocket smoke is because the Aerozine rocket fuel does not produce smoke and burns clean. A high velocity rocket that is propagating more than 50 miles about the surface of the earth is used to justify this argument but the reason that the rocket smoke is missing from the high velocity rocket propagating more then 50 miles above the earth's surface is because the rocket is out running the smoke that is propagating in the opposite direction as the rocket smoke yet the smoke is diametrically still present, at a different location since at the launch pad rocket liftoff an enormous amount of rocket smoke is produced using Aerozine rocket fuel. In addition, the decent film of the lunar lander shows the lander propagating in a horizontal direction, during the lander decent, that would require a thrust in the horizontal direction and a constant center of gravity of the lander yet the lander would experience an enormous change in the center of mass caused by the fuel being consumed during the lunar landing which would shift the center of mass and render it nearly impossible for the horizontal motion of the lander during the descent depicted in the lander descent film. The Bell Aerosystems Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) that propagates in the horizontal direction is used to justify the lander propagating in the horizontal direction but the LLRV main engine is a jet that would not function at the moon's surface since the formation of a jet engine's thrust requires an atmosphere that the moon lacks. Also, the descent film depicts the Apollo astronauts having a conversation that is being recorded in the descent film but a rocket engine would produce a roar which would prevent the audio feed of the Apollo astronauts having their casual conversation recorded in the Apollo 11 landing film. The landing and ascent of the Apollo 11 astronauts would be a life and death experience yet the Apollo descent film does not depict the intensity that would be expected in such a dangerous endeavor. Plus, the photographic images of the Apollo 11 lander does not depict a blast zone beneath the exhaust nozzle of the lander caused by the 3,000 lb rocket thrust during the final descent to the lunar surface. The argument that the 3,000 lb thrust is not significant enough to produce a blast zone beneath the lander is used to justify the non-existence of the blast zone yet, using a jet engine analogy, a Lear jet engine is rated at 3,500 lb thrust (5 psi). A rocket engine's thrust would result in a 900 square inch area under the lander experiencing 3,000 pounds of pressure since the propellant of a rocket engine is burning rocket fuel which is essentially kerosene. NASA is using the low psi value (5 psi) of the rocket thrust to justify that a rocket engine does not produce the blast zone beneath the lander. Example, a bicycle inner tube is under 32 psi which is more than the pressure exerted on the surface of the moon by the rocket engine thrust but the 32 psi of a bicycle inner tube represents a closed volume; whereas, the 5 psi of a rocket engine represents an open system. To form a 3000 lb rocket thrust using a tire pump air compressor and hose, would require more than 10,000 hoses emitting 32 psi of air which is the reason a rocket is launched using rocket fuel not compressed air. In addition, a rocket engine is producing a extremely hot flame (4000o Fahrenheit) which would extend past the landing pads and scorch the lunar surface. The 3,000 lb rocket thrust would result in a blast zone beneath the Apollo 11 lunar lander yet the Apollo 11 photograph (fig 23) show absolutely no disturbance of the fine particle matter in the area beneath the lunar lander. In the photograph of the lander (fig 23) there are boot prints near the lander but to form a boot print requires moisture to allow the lunar particle to stick together to form a boot print yet the moon's surface lacks moisture since during the day the temperature on the surface of the moon reaches 400o Fahrenheit. When sand from the earth is kiln dried, the kiln dry sand does not form a boot prints. The kiln dry sand results in the indentation of the dried sand but no boot print. The argument that the moon's fine particle matter has a structure different then sand which allow for the formation of the boot prints is used to justify the boot prints on the lunar surface. Talcum powder is used to justify that the lunar sand produces boot prints but the particles of talcum powder have a flat and thin structure yet the magnified particles of the lunar sand are not flat. When rocks are crushed to produce a fine particular matter similar to the structure of lunar sand, the crushing rock sand that is kiln dry also does not produce boot prints. In the Apollo 11 photographs, the shadows of the lunar objects are pointing in different directions. Objects close to each other form shadows that are parallel to each other yet the shadows of the lunar object are pointing in different directions. The variation in the contour of the lunar surface is used to explain the multiple directions of the lunar shadows but the photograph (fig 2) shows the lander, on a nearly level surface, approximate 100 meters from two lunar rocks that produce a shadows that have a difference of 45 degrees from the shadow formed by the lander which is not physically possible and proves the lunar lander photographs were fabricated. In another argument, the earth's reflected Sun intensity is used to represent a second light source that forms the multiple directional lunar shadows but if the light intensities from the Sun and the Earth form the lunar shadows then each lunar object would form two separate shadows yet each of the lunar objects, on the lunar surface, are forming a single shadow. Furthermore, in a lunar photograph, a small rectangular object with a small pole extending out of the top (fig 23) part of the cross hair is behind the rectangular object yet the cross hairs are part of a glass plate placed in front of the lens; consequently, all images should appear behind the cross hairs yet numerous Apollo lunar photographs show segments of the cross hairs that appear behind the image. An enhance image of the Apollo 11 mission photographs with the cross hairs in the proper position are used to mitigate the cross hair problem yet the whole point is that NASA is manipulating the photographs which these enhanced photographs represent. The original video of Neil Armstrong stepping on the surface of the moon has been lost and the only film of the event was taken indirectly from a NASA monitor by a TV camera. How incompetent for NASA to lose the most important scientific video film in the history of man. There is also a problem regarding the distance of the camera and Armstrong making his first step on the moon's surface since according to NASA a camera extends from the side of the lander but the film of Armstrong's first step onto the moon's surface depicts a camera that is more than 20 meter away from the lander. Not only that, NASA has lost all of the technical material (blue prints) used to construct the lander. Furthermore, the lunar surface during the day reaches the temperature of 400o Fahrenheit which would result in the Apollo astronaut being cooked while on the surface of the moon. The argument that the space suit reflects the heat is insufficient since the surface of the moon reaches the temperature of 400o F during the day which would result in the astronauts to bake inside of their space suits. Plus, no photographs were taken together of the stars of the stellar universe and an Apollo 11 astronaut on the surface of the moon; in an on camera interview after the Apollo 11 mission Neil Armstrong stated that he did not recall the stars of the celestial universe while on the surface of the moon. NASA justifies the absents of stars in the Apollo 11 photographs using the explanation that the extremely high intensity of the Sun prevents the stars from appearing in the Apollo 11 photographs. Nonetheless, the Apollo 11 mission astronauts appear extremely disturbed in the interview when the question was asked regarding the absents of the stars in the photographs taken on the surface of the moon since the star question contradicts the Lunar mission actual occurrence. Neil Armstrong never gave an on camera interview after his initial interview that included the question regarding why no stars appear in any of the Apollo 11 photographs. Only 20 photographs of the Apollo 11 lunar landing were released. It appears extremely suspicious that such and important and expensive Apollo 11 project would only result in the release of only 20 photographs from the surface of the moon since there are numerous problems regarding the released lunar photographs. Plus, the command module that is orbiting the moon would be able to take an extremely detailed photograph of the lander on the surface of the moon since a 1969 earth satellite can recognize the number of a car license plate on the surface of the earth yet the photographs of the lander taken by the command module is representing the lander with a small dot which suggest that the command module photographs of the lander are photographs taken by an earth based telescope (fig 1). Furthermore, NASA justifies the lunar landing using the Caltech-MIT lunar reflector that was placed on the surface of the moon during the Apollo 11 mission but the Hubble telescope (.1 arcsec) that is more than six times more powerful than the LICK telescope (.6 arsec) cannot view the lunar lander on the surface of the moon yet the LICK telescope is detecting an intensity of the lunar reflector that has an area of one square meter. For the Hubble (1. arcsec) to resolve an image of an illuminated object on the surface of the moon requires an object that has a diameter of 11 km yet the diameter of the lander is less than 20 m. In addition, Caltech-MIT scientists are assuming that a laser beam that propagates 238,000 miles to the moon and back does not disperse since a dispersing 3 W laser beam's intensity would not form a detectable intensity after propagating the distance of 476,000 miles. There would have been no question regarding the Apollo 11 lunar landing, if NASA left a radio beacon on the surface of the moon and independent sources could verify the origin of the radio signal but a radio signal that originates from the moon cannot be detected on the earth because the intensity of a radio signal is dependent on the inverse of the second order of the distance I = A cos(kr)/r2. After propagating the distance of 50,000 miles (r = 8 x 107 m) from the moon a 20 kW radio signal would diminish by a factor of 10-14, a 20 kW radio signal produced on the surface of the moon would be less than the intensity of a cell phone after propagating a distance of 50,000 miles and at 100,000 miles from the moon, the 20 kW radio signal would disappear yet the moon is located 238,000 miles from the earth. It is questionable how NASA communicated with the ostensible Apollo missions, Voyagers, and Mars probes using radio waves. Furthermore, in a video of an Apollo 11 astronaut walking on the surface of the moon shows the placement of the American flag on the surface of the moon but in the film, the flag appears to be flapping similar to a flag blowing in the wind yet the surface of the moon has no atmosphere that could form the waving of the flag with the intensity depicted in the Apollo 11 film. It is argued that the vibration of the flag created by the astronaut placing the flag onto the moon causes the flag to wave but the video that depicts a highly visible flag waving in the horizontal direction suggests that the Apollo 11 mission flag waving was created by a cooling fan within a movie studio. Also, in the Apollo 11 lunar ascent film, a video camera is filming the ascent of the ascent module from the surface of the moon back to the command module but the communication equipment required to sent the video image of the ascent to the CM is not depicted in any of the lunar photographs. In the alleged ascent module video, the ascent module rocket engine does not depict the formation of a rocket flame or smoke. Rocket fuel is essential kerosene and liquid oxygen that combustions produces the rocket thrust when ignited. The change of momentum caused by the expectoration of rocket smoke and partially and burnt rocket fuel during the rocket burn produces the force that propels the rocket but the lunar ascent video does not depict the production of a rocket flame or smoke required in the production of the rocket thrust of the ascent module. It appears that a crane is lifting the ascent module from the surface of the moon and compress air is used to depict the rocket thrust. Moon rocks are used to justify the moon landing but the moon rocks could be meteors that landed on the surface of the earth and pass off as moon rocks. Furthermore, the amount of fuel required to land and ascent the moon is calculated. The amount of fuel required to launch a payload from the surface of the earth into the earth's orbit is approximately equal to the amount of fuel required in descending the same payload onto the surface of the earth from the earth's orbit using a descent rocket re-entry; consequently, the fuel load required to descent a payload from the moon's orbit to the surface of the moon can be calculated using an earth base rocket launch by compensating for the moon's gravity. The total weight of the Apollo 11 lunar lander (dry) is 15,083 lb. Using the moon gravity of .166 g the lunar lander weight would be comparable to
JanPB
2018-01-13 00:43:10 UTC
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During the ostensible Apollo 11 lander descent from the moon's orbit to the surface of the moon, the lander achieves a velocity of approximately 550 mph
Oh stop that crap already. It's right there with the flat earth. Complete
cretinism.

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Jan
n***@gmail.com
2018-01-16 17:48:08 UTC
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n***@gmail.com
2018-01-16 21:22:33 UTC
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n***@gmail.com
2018-01-17 00:55:59 UTC
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n***@gmail.com
2018-01-17 16:18:28 UTC
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n***@gmail.com
2018-01-17 19:36:38 UTC
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When the light from the Sun illuminates the moon's surface only one side of the moon is illuminated which would result in the shadows formed on the moon that are short but the shadows depicted in the Apollo 11 photographs are long. The moon is not rotating on a axis and is exposed to the same light intensity of Sun light at all times; the crest of the moon is produced by the earth. The direct incident angle of the Sun light upon the moon where the lander is located would not produce the shadows depicted in the Apollo 11 photographs. The images of the moon's craters with shadow were created using computer imagery.
Steve BH
2018-01-19 01:28:34 UTC
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Post by n***@gmail.com
When the light from the Sun illuminates the moon's surface only one side of the moon is illuminated which would result in the shadows formed on the moon that are short but the shadows depicted in the Apollo 11 photographs are long. The moon is not rotating on a axis and is exposed to the same light intensity of Sun light at all times; the crest of the moon is produced by the earth. The direct incident angle of the Sun light upon the moon where the lander is located would not produce the shadows depicted in the Apollo 11 photographs. The images of the moon's craters with shadow were created using computer imagery.
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You actually think the Sun is directly overhead on all parts of illuminated Moon? But below the horizon for the rest? Suppose you walk from daylight to dark-- what does your view of the Sun look like?

The Moon does rotate on its axis, silly. With respect to the Sun, but not the Earth. When you see half a Moon in the sky, do you think only a quarter of it is lit up?

The Moon wasn't full when Apollo 11 landed on it. I actually remember that directly. After the moonwalk I want out into the dark back yard, and looked up. It was about 1/4 or 1/3 full, and crescent, as I recall. But the Moon was high in the sky not long after sunset and the light was on the Sun side, meaning it was waxing as it continued "backwards" in its nightly motion, towards being full in maybe a week. The side lit up was the trailing edge, but the Sea of Tranquility (the left eye of the Man in the Moon, first to be lit) was and is in the light, just there. Of COURSE the shadows were long. They did that deliberately to get good relief for landing, and not have to land looking INTO the Sun.
n***@gmail.com
2018-01-17 21:51:07 UTC
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In another argument, it is stated that a radio telescope array has a sensitivity of 10^-26 Watts but the diameter of the Jansky Array's hyperbolic antennas is 25 meters and the diameter of a cell phone tower hyperbolic antenna is approximate two meters and has a sensitivity of .1 Watts. I cannot find a list of sensitivity values regarding radio telescopes which is extremely odd and appears to be an attempt to conceal evidence that would discredit radio telescopes that is the foundation of NASA's current space program. The sensitivity of the Jansky Array is estimated using the area of the antennas of a cell phone hyperbolic antenna. The Jansky Array's is composed of 27 hyperbolic antennas that have a diameter of 25 meters which form a total surface area of approximately A = 27(π 25) m^2 and a cell phone tower has five hyperbolic antenna that has an approximate area of two meters which forms a total area of A = 5(π4) m^2; consequently, the Jansky Array has a total area 33 times greater than a cell phone tower hyperbolic reception antennas which form a approximate Jansky Array sensitivity of .003 Watts which is arbitrarily extended to .000001 Watts or 10^-6 Watts which is still twenty orders of magnitude less than the sensitivity of 10^-26 Watts that was arbitrarily created to justify the NASA space program.
n***@gmail.com
2018-01-17 22:08:01 UTC
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The space X rocket descent onto a carrier is fake you cannot steer a descending rocket and the ocean is very choppy. Its hard enough to land a jet on a carrier much less a rocket that cannot be steer. What, did they maneuver the carrier beneath the descending rocket?
n***@gmail.com
2018-01-18 01:11:41 UTC
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During the ostensible Apollo 11 lander descent from the moon's orbit to the surface of the moon, the lander achieves a velocity of approximately 550 mph then the lander's rocket engine is ignited and produces a thrust of 10,000 lb to reduce the lander descent velocity until the lander nears the moon's surface then the thrust is reduced to 3,000 lb in its final approach to the lunar surface. It is questionable how the rocket fuel of the descending lander could ignite when accelerating at such a high rate which would result in a force in the opposite direction as the lander's downward velocity upon the fuel during the descent which would prevent the ignition of the rocket fuel since the lander must first accelerate downward and gain a high velocity before the rocket engine is activated. At the moon's surface, the lander's rocket engine's thrust would result in the formation of an enormous amount of rocket smoke caused by the push back of the rocket smoke from the lunar surface yet the lunar descent video depicts a minimal amount of rocket smoke at the lunar surface. The lack of the moon's atmosphere is used to justify the non-existence of the enormous rocket smoke plume normally associated with a rocket engine burn but the production of the rocket smoke is caused by the combustion of the Aerozine rocket fuel and the dinitrogen tetroxide oxidizer which would result in the formation of an enormous amount of rocket smoke. The analyses of a video of a rocket engine ignition and burn during liftoff from a launch pad shows the production of an enormous amount of rocket smoke being emitted by the rocket engine which is not depicted in the Apollo 11 lander descent video. It is argued that the lack of rocket smoke is because the Aerozine rocket fuel burns clean and does not produce smoke; a high velocity rocket that is propagating more than 50 miles about the surface of the earth is used to justify this argument but the reason that the rocket smoke is missing from the high velocity rocket is because the rocket is out running the rocket smoke that is propagating in the opposite direction as the rocket yet the smoke is diametrically still present, at a different location since during a launch pad rocket liftoff an enormous amount of rocket smoke is produced using Aerozine rocket fuel that same amount of liftoff rocket smoke is being produced by the high velocity rocket. In addition, the decent film of the lunar lander shows the lander propagating in a horizontal direction, during the lander decent, that would require a thrust in the horizontal direction and a constant center of mass of the lander yet the lander would experience an enormous change in the center of mass caused by the fuel being consumed during the lunar landing which would shift the center of mass and render it nearly impossible for the horizontal motion of the lander during the descent depicted in the lander descent video. The Bell Aerosystems Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) that propagates in the horizontal direction is used to justify the lander propagating in the horizontal direction but the LLRV main engine is a jet that would not function at the moon's surface since the formation of a jet engine's thrust requires an atmosphere that the moon lacks. Also, the descent video depicts the Apollo astronauts having a conversation that is being recorded in the descent video but a rocket engine would produce a roar which would prevent the audio feed of the Apollo astronauts having their casual conversation recorded in the Apollo 11 landing video since the lunar lander is not insulated. The landing and ascent of the Apollo 11 astronauts would be a life and death experience yet the Apollo descent video does not depict the intensity that would be expected in such a dangerous endeavor. Plus, the photographic images of the Apollo 11 lander does not depict a blast zone beneath the exhaust nozzle of the lander caused by the 3,000 lb rocket thrust during the final descent to the lunar surface. The argument that the 3,000 lb thrust is not significant enough to produce a blast zone beneath the lander is used to justify the non-existence of the blast zone yet, using a jet engine analogy, a Lear jet engine is rated at 3,500 lb thrust (5 psi). A rocket engine's thrust would result in a 900 square inch lunar surface area beneath the lander experiencing 3,000 pounds of pressure since the propellant of a rocket engine is burning rocket fuel which is essentially kerosene. NASA is using the low psi value (5 psi) of the rocket thrust to justify that a rocket engine does not produce the blast zone beneath the lander. Example, a bicycle inner tube is under 32 psi which is more than the pressure exerted on the surface of the moon by the rocket engine thrust but the 32 psi of a bicycle inner tube represents a closed volume; whereas, the 5 psi of a rocket engine represents an open system. To form a 3000 lb rocket thrust using a tire pump air compressor and hose, would require more than 10,000 hoses emitting 32 psi of air which is the reason a rocket is launched using rocket fuel not compressed air since rocket fuel is denser than compressed air and propagating at an extremely high velocity during the lunar landing. In addition, a rocket engine is producing a extremely hot flame (4000o Fahrenheit) which would extend past the landing pads and scorch the lunar surface. The 3,000 lb rocket thrust would result in a blast zone beneath the Apollo 11 lunar lander yet the Apollo 11 photograph (fig 23) show absolutely no disturbance of the fine lunar particle matter in the area beneath the lunar lander. In the photograph of the lander (fig 23) there are boot prints near the lander but to form a boot print requires moisture to allow the lunar particle to stick together to form a boot print yet the moon's surface lacks moisture since the temperature on the surface of the moon reaches 400o Fahrenheit. When sand from the earth is kiln dried, the kiln dry sand does not form a boot prints. The kiln dry sand results in the indentation of the dried sand but no boot print. The argument that the moon's fine particle matter has a structure different then sand which allow for the formation of the boot prints is used to justify the boot prints on the lunar surface. Talcum powder is used to justify that the lunar sand produces boot prints but the particles of talcum powder have a flat and thin structure yet the magnified particles of the lunar sand are not flat. When rocks are crushed to produce a fine particular matter similar to the structure of lunar sand, the crushed rock sand that is kiln dry also does not produce boot prints. In the Apollo 11 photographs, the shadows of the lunar objects are pointing in different directions. Objects close to each other form shadows that are parallel to each other yet the shadows of the lunar object are pointing in different directions. The variation in the contour of the lunar surface is used to explain the multiple directions of the lunar shadows but the photograph (fig 2) shows the lander, on a nearly level surface, approximate 200 meters from two lunar rocks that produce shadows that have a difference of 45 degrees from the shadow formed by the lander which is not physically possible and proves the lunar lander photographs were fabricated. When the light from the Sun illuminates the moon's surface only one side of the moon is illuminated which would result in the shadows formed on the moon that are short but the shadows depicted in the Apollo 11 photographs are long. The moon is not rotating on a axis and is exposed to the same light intensity of Sun light at all times; the crest of the moon is produced by the earth. The direct incident angle of the Sun light upon the moon where the lander is located would not produce the shadows depicted in the Apollo 11 photographs. The images of the moon's craters with shadow were created using computer imagery. In another argument, the earth's reflected Sun light is used to represent a second light source that forms the multiple directional lunar shadows but if the light intensities from the Sun and the Earth formed the lunar shadows then each lunar object would produce two separate shadows yet each of the lunar objects, on the lunar surface, are forming a single shadow. Furthermore, in a lunar photograph, a small rectangular object with a small pole extending out of the top (fig 23) part of the cross hair is behind the rectangular object yet the cross hairs are part of a glass plate placed in front of the lens; consequently, all images should appear behind the cross hairs yet numerous Apollo lunar photographs show segments of the cross hairs that appear behind the image. Enhance images of the Apollo 11 mission photographs with the cross hairs in front of the image are used to mitigate the cross hair problem yet the whole point is that NASA is manipulating the photographs which these enhanced photographs represent. The original video of Neil Armstrong stepping on the surface of the moon has been lost and the only record of the event was taken indirectly from a NASA monitor by a TV camera. How incompetent for NASA to lose the most important scientific video footage in the history of man. There is also a problem regarding the distance of the camera and Armstrong making his first step on the moon's surface since according to NASA a camera extends from the side of the lander but the film of Armstrong's first step onto the moon's surface depicts a camera that is more than 20 meter away from the lander. Not only that, NASA has lost all of the technical material (blue prints) used to construct the lander. Furthermore, the lunar surface during the day reaches the temperature of 400o Fahrenheit which would result in the Apollo astronaut being cooked while on the surface of the moon. The argument that the space suit reflects the heat is insufficient since the surface of the moon reaches the temperature of 400o F and the lunar heat would conduct through the astronaut's boots, space suit and the interior gas within the space suit which would result in the astronauts to bake inside of their space suits. The near side of the moon where the lander descended is continuously illuminated by the Sun's intensity for more than 30 hours of a waxing crescent moon near the sea of tranquility that would result in a lunar surface temperature of more than 400o Fahrenheit. The highest temperature on the earth is 140o F. The earth has an atmosphere that dissipates the surface heat yet the surface of the moon does not have an atmosphere and produces a vacuum that insulates the ambient lunar surface heat which suggests that the maximum lunar surface at on the surface of the moon is greater than 400o F. The Sun's maximum intensity on the earth is only exposed for four hours during the day yet the moon's maximum Sun light is continuously heating the lunar surface for more than 30 hours at the landing site. Plus, no photographs were taken together of the stars of the stellar universe and an Apollo 11 astronaut on the surface of the moon; in an on camera interview after the Apollo 11 mission Neil Armstrong stated that he did not recall the stars of the celestial universe while on the surface of the moon. NASA justifies the absents of stars in the Apollo 11 photographs using the explanation that the extremely high intensity of the Sun prevents the stars from appearing in the Apollo 11 photographs. Nonetheless, the Apollo 11 mission astronauts appear extremely disturbed in the interview when the question was asked regarding the absents of the stars in the photographs taken on the surface of the moon since the star question contradicts the Lunar mission actual occurrence. Neil Armstrong never gave an on camera interview after his initial interview that included the question regarding why no stars appear in any of the Apollo 11 photographs. Only 20 photographs of the Apollo 11 lunar landing were released. It appears extremely suspicious that such and important and expensive Apollo 11 project would only result in the release of only 20 photographs from the surface of the moon since there are numerous problems regarding the released lunar photographs. Plus, the command module that is orbiting the moon would be able to take a detailed photograph of the lander on the surface of the moon since a 1969 earth satellite camera can recognize the number of a car license plate on the surface of the earth yet the photographs of the lander taken by the command module is representing the lander with a small dot which suggest that the command module photographs of the lander are photographs taken by an earth based telescope (fig 1). Furthermore, NASA justifies the lunar landing using the Caltech-MIT lunar reflector that was placed on the surface of the moon during the Apollo 11 mission but the Hubble telescope (.1 arcsec) that is more than six times more powerful than the LICK telescope (.6 arsec) cannot view the lunar lander on the surface of the moon yet the LICK telescope is detecting an intensity of the lunar reflector that has an area of one square meter. For the Hubble (1. arcsec) to resolve an image of an illuminated object on the surface of the moon requires an object that has a diameter of 11 km yet the diameter of the lander is less than 20 m. In addition, Caltech-MIT scientists are assuming that a laser beam that propagates 238,000 miles to the moon and back does not disperse since a dispersing 3 W laser beam's intensity would not form a detectable intensity after propagating the distance of 476,000 miles. There would have been no question regarding the Apollo 11 lunar landing, if NASA left a radio beacon on the surface of the moon and independent sources could verify the origin of the radio signal but a radio signal that originates from the moon cannot be detected on the earth because the intensity of a radio signal is dependent on the inverse of the second order of the distance since a radio wave is represented with an electric spherical wave E = E' cos(kr)/r and the intensity is represented with I = E2 which forms I = E'/r2. After propagating the distance of 50,000 miles (r = 8 x 107 m) from the moon a 20 kW radio signal would diminish by a factor of 10-14, a 20 kW radio signal produced on the surface of the moon would be less than the intensity of a cell phone after propagating a distance of 50,000 miles and at 100,000 miles from the moon, the 20 kW radio signal would disappear yet the moon is located 238,000 miles from the earth. An argument is used that a cellphone has a sensitivity of -100 dBm that can receive a signal of 100 femtowatts (10-15 W) but -100 dBm represents .1 Watts and a cell phone has a maximum range of 50 miles. In another argument, it is stated that a radio telescope array has a sensitivity of 10-26 Watts but the diameter of the Jansky Array's hyperbolic antennas is 25 meters and the diameter of a cell phone tower hyperbolic antenna is approximate two meters and has a sensitivity of .1 Watts. The radio telescopes is the foundation of NASA's current space program. The sensitivity of the Jansky Array is estimated using the area of the antennas of a cell phone hyperbolic antenna. The Jansky Array's is composed of 27 hyperbolic antennas that have a diameter of 25 meters which form a total surface area of approximately A = 27(π 25) m2 and a cell phone tower has five hyperbolic antenna that has an approximate area of two meters which forms a total area of A = 5(π4) m2; consequently, the Jansky Array has a total area 33 times greater than a cell phone tower hyperbolic reception antennas which form a approximate Jansky Array sensitivity of .003 Watts which is extrapolated to .000001 Watts or 10-6 Watts which is twenty orders of magnitude less than the sensitivity of 10-26 Watts that was arbitrarily created to justify the NASA space program. It is questionable how NASA communicated with the ostensible Apollo missions, Voyagers, and Mars probes using radio waves. Furthermore, in a video of an Apollo 11 astronaut walking on the surface of the moon shows the placement of the American flag on the surface of the moon but in the film, the flag appears to be flapping similar to a flag blowing in the wind yet the surface of the moon has no atmosphere that could form the waving of the flag with the intensity depicted in the Apollo 11 film. It is argued that the vibration of the flag created by the astronaut placing the flag onto the moon causes the flag to wave but the video that depicts a highly animate flag waving in the horizontal direction suggests that the Apollo 11 mission flag waving was created by a cooling fan within a movie studio. At the surface of the moon, the lander is experiencing a lunar surface temperature of upwards of 400o F that heat would conduct through the metallic legs of the lander which would require an enormous size refrigeration system and the insulation of the lander to prevent the Aerozine rocket fuel from overheating and exploding. Also, in the Apollo 11 lunar ascent video, a video camera, on the surface of the moon, is filming the liftoff of the ascent module from the surface of the moon back to the command module but the communication equipment required to sent the video image of the ascent to the command module is not depicted in any of the lunar photographs, and, the described communication equipment that includes a small hyperbolic antenna would also require a refrigeration unit to prevent the plastic components of the video camera from melting due to the high temperature of the lunar surface. In the alleged ascent module video, the ascent module rocket engine does not depict the formation of a rocket flame or smoke. Rocket fuel is essential kerosene and liquid oxygen that combustion produces the rocket thrust when ignited. The change in momentum of the rocket caused by the expectoration of rocket fuel during the rocket burn produces the force that propels the rocket but the lunar ascent video does not depict the production of a rocket flame or smoke required in the production of the rocket thrust of the ascent module. It appears that a crane is lifting the ascent module from the surface of a movie studio and compress air is used to depict the rocket thrust. Moon rocks are used to justify the moon landing but the moon rocks could be meteors that previously landed on the surface of the earth and pass off as moon rocks. Furthermore, the amount of fuel required to land and ascent the moon is calculated. The amount of fuel required to launch a payload from the surface of the earth into the earth's orbit is approximately equal to the amount of fuel required in descending the same payload onto the surface of the earth from the earth's orbit using a descent rocket re-entry; consequently, the fuel load required to descent a payload from the moon's orbit to the surface of the moon can be calculated using an earth base rocket launch by compensating for the moon's gravity. The total weight of the Apollo 11 lunar lander (dry) is 15,083 lb. Using the moon gravity of .166 g the lunar lander weight would be comparable to
David (Kronos Prime) Fuller
2018-01-18 02:54:13 UTC
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