Discussion:
Maxwell's equations
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-07 21:21:05 UTC
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§ 26. Maxwell's Equations

With the method developed in the derivation of the equations of the atomic orbitals allows for the derivation of Maxwell's equations and Maxwell's structure of light. Maxwell's electric curl equation is derived using Faraday's wire loop induction effect represented with the magnetic flux (fig 15),

emf = - ʃʃ (dB/dt)· dA...........................................89

A second wire loop emf equation is used that represents the internal electric field E that forms the wire loop emf,

emf = ʃ E · dl.......................................................90

Equating equations 89 and 90,

ʃ E · dl = - ʃʃ (dB/dt)· dA.......................................91

Using Stokes' theorem (Hecht, p. 649),

ʃ E · dl = - ʃʃ (∇ x E)· dA......................................92

Equating equations 91 and 92,

- ʃʃ(dB/dt)· dA = ʃʃ (∇ x E)· dA.............................93

Maxwell electric curl equation is derived using equation 93,

∇ x E = - dB/dt...................................................94

Faraday's induction effect depicts an internal electric current that only forms within the conduction wire represented in equation 90 yet Maxwell's electric curl equation (equ 94) is used to represent an electric field of an electromagnetic light wave that exists in the space outside the conduction wire which violates Faraday's induction mechanism. Furthermore, Faraday's induction effect is not luminous yet Maxwell's equations are used to represent the structure of light. In addition, the magnetic flux of Faraday's induction effect is pointing in the direction of the propagation which represents a longitudinal magnetic wave yet Maxwell's electric curl equation is being used to derive the electromagnetic transverse wave equations of light.

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n***@gmail.com
2017-11-07 22:07:55 UTC
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rt
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-07 22:57:55 UTC
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Maxwell's magnetic curl equation is derived using Ampere's law (Hecht, p. 42),

ʃ B · dl = ui..........................................................95

..

Maxwell electric current (dE/dt), that forms in the space between a varying capacitor (fig 16), is added to Ampere's law,

ʃ B · dl = ʃʃ (J + ε dE/dt) · dA ..............................96

Using Stokes' theorem, on the left side of equation 96 forms (Hecht, p. 649),

ʃ B · dl = ʃʃ (∇ x B) · dA........................................97

Equating equations 96 and 97 then using J = 0,

ʃʃ (ε dE/dt)· dA = ʃʃ (∇ x B) · dA............................98

Maxwell's magnetic curl equation is derived using equation 98,

∇ x B = 1/c (dE/dt)..............................................99

Hecht's electric current (dE/dt) forms in the open space between the plates of a varying capacitor which conflicts with Faraday's induction effect that electric current only forms within the current wire. Also, in Maxwell's derivation of Maxwell's equations, Maxwell only uses Faraday's induction effect to derive Maxwell's equations (Maxwell, Part III) yet Hecht's derivation of the magnetic curl equation is based on a varying capacitor which conflicts with Maxwell's derivation. Plus, Hecht is using Stokes' theorem to derive equations 92 and 97 that depict the equating a line integral with a surface integral which is mathematically invalid.
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-08 21:10:40 UTC
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§ 27. Maxwell's Structure of Light

The electromagnetic transverse wave equations of light are derived using Maxwell's equations,

∇ x E = - dB/dt........................∇ x B = 1/c (dE/dt).....................................100a,b

Maxwell's curl equations (equ 100a,b) are expanded to form,

dEz/dy - dEy/dz = - dBx/dt...........................................................................101

dEx/dz - dEz/dx = - dBy/dt..........................................................................102

dEy/dx - dEx/dy = - dBz/dt...........................................................................103

...........................................................

dBz/dy - dBy/dz = 1/c (dEx/dt)....................................................................104

dBx/dz - dBz/dx = 1/c (dEy/dt)...................................................................105

dBy/dx - dBx/dy = 1/c (dEz/dt)..................................................... ..............106

The z-direction electric transverse wave equations is derived using equations 101 and 105 by eliminating dEy/dz and dBz/dx to form (Jenkins, p. 410),

dEy/dz = 1/c (dBx/dt)..............................dBx/dz = 1/c (dEy/dt)...................107a,b

Differentiating equation 107a, with the respect to d/dz, and equation 107b with respect to d/dt produces (Condon, p, 1-108),

d2Ey/d2z = 1/c (d2Bx/dtdz)......................d2Bx/dtdz = 1/c (d2Ey/d2t)...........108a,b

Equating equations 108a,b,

d2Ey/d2z = 1/c2 (d2Ey/d2t)..........................................................................109

Differentiating equation 107a, with the respect to d/dt, and equation 107b with respect to d/dz produces ,

d2Ey/dtdz = 1/c (d2Bx/d2t)......................d2Bx/d2z = 1/c (d2Ey/dtdz)...........110a,b

Equating equations 110a,b forms,

d2Bx/d2z = 1/c2 (d2Bx/d2t)..........................................................................111

Equations 109 and 111 are used to derive the z direction electromagnetic transverse wave equations of light (fig 17),

Ey = Eo cos(kz - wt) ĵ ..............................................................................112

Bx = Bo cos(kz -wt) î ................................................................................113

To test the derivation, the z-directional electric and magnetic transverse wave equations of light (equ 112 & 113) are used in equation 107a,

d/dz[Eo cos(kz - wt)] ĵ = - (1/c) d/dt[Bo cos(kz - wt)] î.........................114

Equation 114 forms,

Eo ĵ = Bo î ............................................................................................115

Equation 107a that is used to derive the electromagnetic transverse wave equations of light produces a unite vector catastrophe (equ 115) since Maxwell's equations represents electromagnetic longitudinal waves. Also, in the derivation of equations 107a,b, 14 of the 18 differential components that constitute Maxwell's equations are eliminated; consequently, the electromagnetic wave equations of light are derive by only using a faction of the differential components that constitute Maxwell's equations.

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Part B
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-08 23:11:25 UTC
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§ 2. Huygens

In Huygens' paper, "Treatise on Light" (1690), Huygens describes Roemer's observation of the period of Io that produces a 10 minute time delay.

"But that which I employed only as a hypothesis, has recently received great seemingness as an established truth by the ingenious proof of Mr. Römer which I am going here to relate, expecting him himself to give all that is needed for its confirmation. It is founded as is the preceding argument upon celestial observations, and proves not only that Light takes time for its passage, but also demonstrates how much time it takes, and that its velocity is even at least six times greater than that which I have just stated. For this he makes use of the Eclipses suffered by the little planets which revolve around Jupiter, and which often enter his shadow: and see what is his reasoning." (Huygens, p. 8-9).

"Hence, if light would travel the diameter of the Earth in one second, it would travel each interval FG and KL in 3 1/2 minutes. This should lead to a deviation of about half an hour between two revolutions of this satellite observed in FG and KL respectively. On the other hand, nothing of such a substantial difference has been found." (Roemer, p. 276).

"For instance, 40 revolutions observed from the side F should be substantially shorter that 40 other revolutions, observed from the opposite side (this effect is independent of any position in the Zodiac where Jupiter would be located), and this is in a ratio of 22 to the interval HE, which is twice the distance from us to the Sun.The necessity of the new equation of delayed light was established by all the observations obtained at the Royal Academy and the Observatory during the past 8 years. This was verified later, by the appearance of the first satellite from the shadow of Jupiter, observed in the evening 5h35m45s on November 9 of this year, in Paris, that occurred 10 minutes later than it was expected on the basis of the observations produced in August, when the Earth was much closer to Jupiter; this was predicted by monsieur Rømer, at the Academy in the beginning of September ." (Roemer, p. 277-8).

Roemer did not measure or calculate the velocity of light in his three page paper. Roemer describes the time delay of the period of Io a moon of Jupiter and the earth's orbital diameter HE. Roemer states that after a ten month time interval between November 9 and the beginning of September a 10 minute time delay of Io period was recorded that was attributed to the velocity of light.

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Huygens calculates the velocity of light using the earth's orbital diameter KL and a 22 minute time delay of the period of Io (fig 2).

"If one considers the vast size of the diameter KL, which according to me is some 24 thousand diameters of the Earth, one will acknowledge the extreme velocity of Light. For, supposing that KL is no more than 22 thousand of these diameters, it appears that being traversed in 22 minutes this makes the speed a thousand diameters in one minute, that is 16-2/3 diameters in one second or in one beat of the pulse, which makes more than 11 hundred times a hundred thousand toises; since the diameter of the Earth contains 2,865 leagues, reckoned at 25 to the degree, and each each league is 2,282 Toises, according to the exact measurement which Mr. Picard made by order of the King in 1669. But Sound, as I have said above, only travels 180 toises in the same time of one second: hence the velocity of Light is more than six hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. This, however, is quite another thing from being instantaneous, since there is all the difference between a finite thing and an infinite. Now the successive movement of Light being confirmed in this way, it follows, as I have said, that it spreads by spherical waves, like the movement of Sound." (Huygens, p. 10-11).

Huygens uses the earth's orbital diameter KL and a 22 minute time delay to calculate the velocity of light using Io a moon of Jupiter as a clock but after the earth propagates the position L where KL represents the earth's orbital diameter that is used to calculate the velocity of light, Huygens cannot view the eclipse of Io since at position L the dark side of the earth (night) is not facing Jupiter. Example, Jupiter is in opposition on May 9, 2018 and on November 9, 2018 after the earth propagates the distance of the earth's orbital diameter in a six month time period Jupiter does not appear in the night sky (http://www.seasky.org/astronomy/astronomy-calendar-2018.html
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-08 23:57:55 UTC
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LIGO---------->What do ELF radio waves that are used to justify LIGO gravity waves have to do with Michelson's experiment?
RLH
2017-11-09 18:55:19 UTC
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LIGO---------->What do ELF radio waves that are used to justify LIGO gravity waves have to do with Michelson's experiment?
One uses the other, just a more precise version?
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-09 21:26:07 UTC
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Huygens' describes light using spherical waves based on a sound wave analogy.

"We know that by means of the air, which is an invisible and impalpable body, Sound spreads around the spot where it has been produced, by a movement which is passed on successively from one part of the air to another; and that the spreading of this movement, taking place equally rapidly on all sides, ought to form spherical surfaces ever enlarging and which strike our ears. Now there is no doubt at all that light also comes from the luminous body to our eyes by some movement impressed on the matter which is between the two; since, as we have already seen, it cannot be by the transport of a body which passes from one to the other. If, in addition, light takes time for its passage—which we are now going to examine—it will follow that this movement, impressed on the intervening matter, is successive; and consequently it spreads, as Sound does, by spherical surfaces and waves" (Huygens, p. 5).

"It is true that we are here supposing a strange velocity that would be a hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. For Sound, according to what I have observed, travels about 180 Toises in the time of one Second, or in about one beat of the pulse. But this supposition ought not to seem to be an impossibility; since it is not a question of the transport of a body with so great a speed, but of a successive movement which is passed on from some bodies to others. I have then made no difficulty, in meditating on these things, in supposing that the emanation of light is accomplished with time, seeing that in this way all its phenomena can be explained, and that in following the contrary opinion everything is incomprehensible. For it has always seemed tome that even Mr. Des Cartes, whose aim has been to treat all the subjects of Physics intelligibly, and who assuredly has succeeded in this better than any one before him, has said nothing that is not full of difficulties, or even inconceivable, in dealing with Light and its properties." (Huygens, p. 7).

"the velocity of Light is more than six hundred thousand times greater than that of Sound. This, however, is quite another thing from being instantaneous, since there is all the difference between a finite thing and an infinite. Now the successive movement of Light being confirmed in this way, it follows, as I have said, that it spreads by spherical waves, like the movement of Sound." (Huygens, p. 10).

Huygens' optical spherical waves are formed by the motion of an ether composed of matter yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which contradicts the existence of Huygens' ether and spherical waves. A wave is a mechanical entity that is formed by the motion of a medium, composed of matter (solid, liquid or gas). Example, air is the medium that forms sound waves which are produced by the exchange of the kinetic energies of interacting air molecules but sound cannot propagate in vacuum since vacuum is void of air molecules required in forming sound waves yet Huygens is using an acoustical analogy to represent the propagation of light. One of the most important physical characteristic of sound (air molecules) is not applicable to light since light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter (gas) yet Huygens is using an acoustical analogy to describe the propagation of light.

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Huygens is describing the formation of light waves produced by the motion of an ether, composed of matter.

"Now if one examines what this matter may be in which the movement coming from the luminous body is propagated, which I call Ethereal matter" (Huygens, p. 11).

"But the extreme velocity of Light, and other properties which it has, cannot admit of such a propagation of motion, and I am about to show here the way in which I conceive it must occur. For this, it is needful to explain the property which hard bodies must possess to transmit movement from one to another." (Huygens, p. 13).

"But it is still certain that this progression of motion is not instantaneous, but successive, and therefore must take time. For if the movement, or the disposition to movement, if you will have it so, did not pass successively through all these spheres, they would all acquire the movement at the same time, and hence would all advance together; which does not happen. For the last one leaves the whole row and acquires the speed of the one which was pushed. Moreover there are experiments which demonstrate that all the bodies which we reckon of the hardest kind, such as quenched steel, glass, and agate, act as springs and bend somehow, not only when extended as rods but also when they are in the form of spheres or of other shapes." (Huygens, p. 13).

"Now in applying this kind of movement to that which produces Light there is nothing to hinder us from estimating the particles of the ether to be of a substance as nearly approaching to perfect hardness and possessing a springiness as prompt as we choose. It is not necessary to examine here the causes of this hardness, or of that springiness, the consideration of which would lead us too far from our subject. I will say, however, in passing that we may conceive that the particles of the ether" (Huygens, p. 14).

"But though we shall ignore the true cause of springiness we still see that there are many bodies which possess this property; and thus there is nothing strange in supposing that it exists also in little invisible bodies like the particles of the Ether. Also if one wishes to seek for any other way in which the movement of Light is successively communicated, one will find none which agrees better, with uniform progression, as seems to be necessary, than the property of springiness; because if this movement should grow slower in proportion as it is shared over a greater quantity of matter, in moving away from the source of the light, it could not conserve this great velocity over great distances. But by supposing springiness in the ethereal matter, its particles will have the property of equally rapid restitution whether they are pushed strongly or feebly; and thus the propagation of Light will always go on with an equal velocity." (Huygens, p. 15).

Huygens' light waves are formed by the motion of an ether that hardness forms a springiness which transfers the energy of the luminous source through a stationary ether in the formation of propagating light waves similar to the propagation of sound waves in air yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which proves the propagation of light does not involve an ether. Furthermore, sound waves are formed by the interaction of air molecules that are propagating in random directions. The collective motion of interacting air molecules that exchange kinetic energies form sound waves yet a light ray is composed of massless optic particles that are not interacting and are propagating in a single direction at a constant velocity which conflicts with Huygens' sound wave analogy.

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Huygens states the ether propagates through glass, water or mercury and exists within the glass vacuum tube.

"This may be proved by shutting up a sounding body in a glass vessel from which the air is withdrawn by the machine which Mr. Boyle has given us, and with which he has performed so many beautiful experiments. But in doing this of which I speak, care must be taken to place the sounding body on cotton or on feathers, in such a way that it cannot communicate its tremors either to the glass vessel which encloses it, or to the machine; a precaution which has hitherto been neglected. For then after having exhausted all the air one hears no Sound from the metal, though it is struck. One sees here not only that our air, which does not penetrate through glass, is the matter by which Sound spreads; but also that it is not the same air but another kind of matter in which Light spreads; since if the air is removed from the vessel the Light does not cease to traverse it as before. And this last point is demonstrated even more clearly by the celebrated experiment of Torricelli, in which the tube of glass from which the quicksilver has withdrawn itself, remaining void of air, transmits Light just the same as when air is in it. For this proves that a matter different from air exists in this tube, and that this matter must have penetrated the glass or the quicksilver, either one or the other, though they are both impenetrable to the air. And when, in the same experiment, one makes the vacuum after putting a little water above the quicksilver, one concludes equally that the said matter passes through glass or water, or through both." (Huygens, p. 11 & 12).

Huygens' wave theory of light is based on light waves formed by the motion of an ether, composed of matter yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which contradicts Huygens' wave theory of light; consequently, Huygens states that the ether, composed of matter, propagates through glass, water or mercury that is producing the vacuum of Torricelli's glass vacuum tube but the ether propagating through glass would produce a hole in the glass or shatter the glass and the ether propagating through mercury or water would be detectable; henceforth, light propagating through the glass vacuum tube proves the propagation of light does not involve Huygens' ether.

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Huygens describes spherical waves that originate from a candle flame (fig 3).

"I have then shown in what manner one may conceive Light to spread successively, by spherical waves, and how it is possible that this spreading is accomplished with as great a velocity as that which experiments and celestial observations demand. Whence it may be further remarked that although the particles are supposed to be in continual movement (for there are many reasons for this) the successive propagation of the waves cannot be hindered by this; because the propagation consists nowise in the transport of those particles but merely in a small agitation which they cannot help communicating to those surrounding, notwithstanding any movement which may act on them causing them to be changing positions amongst themselves.

But we must consider still more particularly the origin of these waves, and the manner in which they spread. And, first, it follows from what has been said on the production of Light, that each little region of a luminous body, such as the Sun, a candle, or a burning coal, generates its own waves of which that region is the centre. Thus in the flame of a candle, having distinguished the points A, B, C, concentric circles described about each of these points represent the waves which come from them. And one must imagine the same about every point of the surface and of the part within the flame." (Huygens, p. 17).

Huygens' candle flame produces optical spherical waves, from points A, B and C, by the motion of an ether that does not exist (vacuum). Huygens dismisses the fact that light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter and describes the "agitation" of the ether particles that form Huygens' optical spherical waves but the existence of Huygens' candle flame spherical waves is contingent on the existence of an ether, composed of matter, that does not exist.

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Huygens represents the propagation of light using spherical waves represented with partial waves that points C, C, C are used to construct the wave DCF (fig 4).

"There is the further consideration in the emanation of these waves, that each particle of matter in which a wave spreads, ought not to communicate its motion only to the next particle which is in the straight line drawn from the luminous point, but that it also imparts some of it necessarily to all the others which touch it and which oppose themselves to its movement. So it arises that around each particle there is made a wave of which that particle is the centre. Thus if DCF is a wave emanating from the luminous point A, which is its centre, the particle B, one of those comprised within the sphere DCF, will have made its particular or partial wave KCL, which will touch the wave DCF at C at the same moment that the principal wave emanating from the point A has arrived at DCF." (Huygens, p. 19).

Huygens' expanding spherical waves originate from points b, b, b, along the wave HI. The far points C, C, C, of the spherical waves propagate to the wave DCF and are used to construct the wave DCF which represents Huygens' propagation mechanism of light but Huygens' wave HI is arbitrarily creating energy (spherical waves). The sun, a candle flame or a burning piece of coal are light sources that are generating light energy. Huygens' representation of the formation of spherical waves from points along the wave HI is depicting the wave front HI as a light source that is generating energy which violates energy conservation. In addition, only the far points C, C, C, of the spherical waves are used to construct the wave DCF. The remaining structures of the spherical waves are ignored after the wave DCF is constructed since the expanding spherical waves' structures would overlap the wave DCF and represent the increase in the intensity of Huygens' light beam.

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n***@gmail.com
2017-11-09 21:29:55 UTC
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"The eight-watt ELF signal radiates from the dual-site system and travels around the world through the atmospheric layer between the earth's surface and a zone of charged air particles known as the ionosphere."

Extremely Low Frequency Transmitter Site
Clam Lake, Wisconsin

US Navy fact files Page 2

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Eight Watts?
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-09 22:19:06 UTC
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" 1. A low-frequency oscillator (LFO) is an electronic oscillator that generates a frequency below approximately 20 Hz. This term is typically used in the field of audio synthesizers, to distinguish it from an audio frequency oscillator.

2. An audio oscillator produces frequencies in the audio range, about 16 Hz to 20 kHz.

3. An RF oscillator produces signals in the radio frequency (RF) range of about 10 kHz to 100 GHz." (Wikipedia, electronic oscillators, 11/9/2017)
RLH
2017-11-09 23:18:43 UTC
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Post by n***@gmail.com
" 1. A low-frequency oscillator (LFO) is an electronic oscillator that generates a frequency below approximately 20 Hz. This term is typically used in the field of audio synthesizers, to distinguish it from an audio frequency oscillator.
2. An audio oscillator produces frequencies in the audio range, about 16 Hz to 20 kHz.
3. An RF oscillator produces signals in the radio frequency (RF) range of about 10 kHz to 100 GHz." (Wikipedia, electronic oscillators, 11/9/2017)
EMR goes from the very, very long radio waves to the very short gamma rays. All are both Photons and wave packets. Get your head around that.
benj
2017-11-10 01:48:19 UTC
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Post by n***@gmail.com
" 1. A low-frequency oscillator (LFO) is an electronic oscillator that generates a frequency below approximately 20 Hz. This term is typically used in the field of audio synthesizers, to distinguish it from an audio frequency oscillator.
2. An audio oscillator produces frequencies in the audio range, about 16 Hz to 20 kHz.
3. An RF oscillator produces signals in the radio frequency (RF) range of about 10 kHz to 100 GHz." (Wikipedia, electronic oscillators, 11/9/2017)
EMR goes from the very, very long radio waves to the very short gamma rays. All are both Photons and wave packets. Get your head around that.
Prove it. ZERO evidence. Back to drawing board.
RLH
2017-11-10 02:23:48 UTC
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Post by n***@gmail.com
" 1. A low-frequency oscillator (LFO) is an electronic oscillator that generates a frequency below approximately 20 Hz. This term is typically used in the field of audio synthesizers, to distinguish it from an audio frequency oscillator.
2. An audio oscillator produces frequencies in the audio range, about 16 Hz to 20 kHz.
3. An RF oscillator produces signals in the radio frequency (RF) range of about 10 kHz to 100 GHz." (Wikipedia, electronic oscillators, 11/9/2017)
EMR goes from the very, very long radio waves to the very short gamma rays. All are both Photons and wave packets. Get your head around that.
Prove it. ZERO evidence. Back to drawing board.
Well radio, radar, and lasers work as expected. So do telescopes and microscopes.
Pierre Stowe
2017-11-11 09:12:26 UTC
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Post by benj
Post by RLH
EMR goes from the very, very long radio waves to the very short gamma
rays. All are both Photons and wave packets. Get your head around
that.
Prove it. ZERO evidence. Back to drawing board.
Well radio, radar, and lasers work as expected. So do telescopes and microscopes.
How predictable, you are weak in Fluid Dynamics as well.
RLH
2017-11-11 09:22:55 UTC
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Post by Pierre Stowe
Post by RLH
Post by benj
Post by RLH
EMR goes from the very, very long radio waves to the very short gamma
rays. All are both Photons and wave packets. Get your head around
that.
Prove it. ZERO evidence. Back to drawing board.
Well radio, radar, and lasers work as expected. So do telescopes and microscopes.
How predictable, you are weak in Fluid Dynamics as well.
Fluid Dynamics? Well I suppose there must be some calculations that could be done about the few thin gas we have that we normally call a vacuum. Not sure that most of the existing work would stretch to that sort of dissipation.
Pierre Stowe
2017-11-11 09:33:07 UTC
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Well radio, radar, and lasers work as expected. So do telescopes and microscopes.
How predictable, you are weak in Fluid Dynamics as well.
Fluid Dynamics? Well I suppose there must be some calculations that
could be done about the few thin gas we have that we normally call a
vacuum. Not sure that most of the existing work would stretch to that
sort of dissipation.
Dissipation? So you don't know the Heat/Diffusion partial differential
equation as governing into a model, as well. You need PARTICLES into your
model, meine kleine bitte katze. You can't do vacuum by particles. What
else you don't know in Physics?
RLH
2017-11-11 09:41:10 UTC
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Post by Pierre Stowe
Post by RLH
Post by Pierre Stowe
Post by RLH
Well radio, radar, and lasers work as expected. So do telescopes and microscopes.
How predictable, you are weak in Fluid Dynamics as well.
Fluid Dynamics? Well I suppose there must be some calculations that
could be done about the few thin gas we have that we normally call a
vacuum. Not sure that most of the existing work would stretch to that
sort of dissipation.
Dissipation? So you don't know the Heat/Diffusion partial differential
equation as governing into a model, as well. You need PARTICLES into your
model, meine kleine bitte katze. You can't do vacuum by particles. What
else you don't know in Physics?
Dissipation as in a dispersing gas cloud. Nowhere in the Universe does the hydrogen atom count get below about 1 atom per cubic meter. Give the distance that a light year covers than means a LOT of hydrogen atoms encountered star to star.

If you think about it, faster than light travel is impossible. See that white hot exhaust you are using to push the spacecraft forward? Think of it much like a plasma torch? Now look ahead. You have a similar plasma torch pointed at you.

It does not much matter if you hit a target with a particle travelling at the speed of light. It is just the same as hitting a stationary particle with a target moving at the speed of light instead.

Those damn "bugs on a windshield" problem again.
s***@gmail.com
2017-11-09 23:57:15 UTC
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§ 3. Fresnel

In Fresnel's paper, "Memorie su la Diffraction de la Lumiere" (1819), Fresnel describes diffraction using interfering light waves formed by the vibration of the elastic fluid (ether).

"21. If we call λ the length of a light-wave, that is to say, the distance between two points in the ether where vibrations of the same kind are occurring at the same time" (Fresnel, § 21).

"Admitting that light consists in vibrations of the ether similar to sound-waves, we can easily account for the inflection of rays of light at sensible distances from the diffraction body." (Fresnel, § 33).

"To understand how a single luminous particle may perform a large series of oscillations all of which are nearly equal, we have only to imagine that its density is much greater than that of the fluid in which it vibrates---and, indeed, this is only what has already been inferred from the uniformity of the motions of the planets through this same fluid which fills planetary space." (Fresnel, § 33).

"APPLICATIONS OF HUYGENS'S PRINCIPLE TO THE PHENOMENA OF DIFFRACTION

43. Having determined the resultant of any number of trains of light-waves. I shall now show how by the aid of these interference formulae and by the principle of Huygens alone it is possible to explain, and even to compute, all the phenomena of diffraction. This principle, which I consider as a rigorous deduction from the basal hypothesis, may be expressed thus: The vibrations at each point in the wave-front may be considered as the sum of the elementary motions which at any one instant are sent to that point from all parts of this same wave in any one of its pervious* positions, each of these parts acting independently the one of the other. It follows from the principle of the superposition of small motions that the vibrations produced at any point in an elastic fluid" (Fresnel, § 43).

Fresnel's diffraction mechanism is based on interfering light waves formed by the motion of Huygens' ether, composed of matter, but diffraction forms in vacuum that is void of matter.

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n***@gmail.com
2017-11-11 21:56:34 UTC
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Prove it. ZERO evidence. Back to drawing board.

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Prove What?
n***@gmail.com
2017-11-11 21:58:11 UTC